Towards a Knowledge Society


Towards a Knowledge Society

Final Draft for the Vision 2020 Committee

Garry Jacobs & N. Asokan

January 1, 2003

The Mother's Service Society

No. 5 First Cross Ext, Venkata Nagar Extension, Pondicherry 605011

Tel: (0413) 2213758, 2212443 Fax: (0413) 2212338



Introduction- 1

India: Vision 2020. 1

Knowledge Society. 1

The Question of Resources. 2

Role of Knowledge in Development 4

India's Knowledge Gap- 5

Literacy. 5

Education. 6

R&D.. 7

Application of Technology. 8

Knowledge Dissemination through the Media. 9

Business-as-usual vs. Best-case Scenario in Education. 11

Essential Role of Education. 12

Elementary Education. 13

Improving the Quality of Education. 14

New Methods and Delivery Systems for Adult Education. 16

Farm Schools for Applied Agricultural Science. 16

Vocational Training for All Productive Skills. 17

Higher Education. 19

Social Systems for Knowledge Dissemination. 20

Knowledge-based Industries. 27

Public Policies 28

Investment in Education. 28

Expanding the nation's corps of school teachers. 28

Expansion of schools and classrooms. 28

Role of Private Sector 29

Computerizing general education & vocational education. 29



India: Vision 2020

Imagine an India in which elementary school enrolment (I-VIII) and adult literacy are approaching 100%, school drop out rates are near zero, all children who are not going on for higher academic studies receive vocational training, and computer literacy is almost up to the standard of Western nations. Imagine a country in which nearly all citizens have access to all forms of print and electronic communication media-television, telephone, the Internet.

Compare that with India as it is today, with only 64% of its people meeting even the most minimum standard of literacy, where 59% of students never complete 5th standard, where secondary enrolment is 58% but of those that enrol 54% (68% of the total age group) never complete 8th standard, where only a small percentage of youth receive vocational training before entering the workforce, and where probably less than 1% of the working age population is computer literate.

Now try to conceive of how much more productive, prosperous, dynamic and expansive would be the India that you have imagined. Think about the potential benefits of new educational methods that would make it possible for school children to complete the entire secondary school curriculum within the first five or six years of education, with greater comprehension and retention and greater capacity for thinking, problem solving and creativity. How much more knowledgeable, skilled, and competent would be the nation's workforce? Imagine the impact on social productivity and living standards of corporations, universities, and government administrations staffed by such a workforce. How much more efficient and innovative? How much better informed would be the decisions taken by individuals regarding education, occupation, politics, business investment, health, child-rearing and life-style? How much more effective the institutions operating for the development of society? Imagine a workforce able to meet the entire world's shortage of technical and professional graduates. Imagine companies and universities from around the world gravitating to India as the premier scientific and technological research and development environment. Imagine an India in which cities are far cleaner and more modern, citizens more enlightened and responsible, entrepreneurs more dynamic and sophisticated, institutions far more effective and responsive. Surely as a minimum, this India would enjoy a per capita income three to four times higher, perhaps ten times higher, than the country does today.

This India of your imagination is merely a dream today, but it can become a reality within the next two decades, provided the nation's intellectual, political and business leaders have the vision to perceive the country's enormous untapped human potentials and make a full and determined commitment to fully develop those potentials. Knowledge is the key to realizing this vision of India in 2020.

Knowledge Society

Knowledge has always been an essential and distinguishing characteristic of human society, for human beings are unique among all species in their extended capacity to formulate, systematize, preserve and consciously transmit organized bodies of knowledge from one individual, community, generation and location to another. That is the essence of all that is known as education.

The term ‘knowledge society' has gained prevalence in recent years due to the revolutionary strides in technology and the rapid evolution of new systems for the gathering, transmission and application of information. A confluence of technologies-television, computers, networking, satellite communications and the internet-constitute the technological basis for the knowledge revolution. Their rapid proliferation over the past decade has made possible movement of information around the world at lightning speed. This dramatic acceleration in the development of information technologies; in the speed and extent of global knowledge accumulation, dissemination and exchange; in the blurring and transcendence of traditional boundaries between fields of knowledge; and in the emergence of new knowledge-based industries are defining characteristics of the knowledge revolution.

The knowledge revolution marks a fundamental shift in human development beyond the limitations imposed by material processes toward the unlimited, indeed, infinite creative potential, of human processes. In fact, this shift is really not as unusual as we may have thought. All resources, even land and minerals, are products of the human mind. Anything becomes a resource only when the human mind recognizes a valuable use for it. Development has always been based on the creative and imaginative capacity of the human mind. In this sense, the Knowledge Society is not really something that has just suddenly emerged out of nowhere.

The concept of Knowledge Society includes also that of the learning society. The pace of knowledge generation and adoption is so rapid in the world of today that learning can no longer be confined to formative years of youth. All members of the population must continue to acquire knowledge throughout their adult lives in order to avail of the economic opportunities that rapid development makes possible. This requires the development of innovative delivery systems for dissemination of practically useful information on a continuous basis.

A guiding and inspiring vision of what India has the opportunity to become by 2020 must take into account the enormous productive potential of knowledge to accelerate the development and transformation of the country. The knowledge revolution is not a fashion or a fad. However, in striving to adapt and respond to the opportunities generated by the knowledge revolution, two guiding principles should be kept in mind. First, efforts to spread the Knowledge Society should avoid as far as possible the empty hype and fads currently sweeping the world and concentrate rather on the real role of knowledge as a catalyst for development. Second, rather than blind imitation of other countries, India should seek to innovate new strategies and new applications of the knowledge revolution adapted to local needs, conditions and culture. To do so it is necessary that we appreciate the true role of knowledge in development.

The Question of Resources

All efforts to project India's future progress get blinded sooner or later by the question of resources, by which is meant the financial resources needed for investment in infrastructure, industry and institutions. Annual budgets, Five-year Plans, company reports place primary emphasis on the importance of capital investment. But money is not the most important contributor to a nation's growth. A study by Denison of the factors contributing to growth of the US economy from 1929 to 1982 attributes 94% of the total to factors relating to knowledge generation and dissemination: 64% of that growth is linked to advances in knowledge generation (i.e. R&D) and another 30% to advances in education. Better resource management, which is an application of knowledge, is also identified as a more important factor than capital. This fact bodes well for countries whose economic planners are able to escape from their faith in the pre-eminent importance of capital and fully tap the enormous productive potential of non-material, knowledge resources.

The knowledge revolution is not just a short term blip on the radar screen which peaked in 2000 with the boom in companies. It is a real and profound opportunity for countries around the world to increase the speed and spread the benefits of development. What is termed the knowledge revolution marks a significant shift in the relative importance of different resources or factors of production in the development process. As futurist Alvin Tofler has documented, the shift from physical power to wealth power to mind power is an evolution in the foundations of the global economy. It marks a fundamental shift in the character of social evolution.

In earlier stages of development, land and minerals constituted the principle resources for development. Technology was rudimentary. Human beings were valued mainly for their physical labour. Today, technology, organization and information-three basic components of the knowledge revolution-have become critically important resources for development. All economic activities are becoming more knowledge-intensive. By one recent estimate, 50-60% of all industrial output is based on information. Modern manufacturing industries depend as much for their success on the management of information relating to quality, cost and scheduling as they do on the management of materials and production processes. The service sector, which is the greatest source of new jobs and economic growth in the world economy, is essentially knowledge-based. The phenomenal growth of employment opportunities in this century has been mostly driven by the rapid expansion of services. The four most important service sectors in the US economy today-financial services, insurance, health and education-are especially knowledge-intensive. This shift from material to knowledge-based resources opens up vast opportunities for developing countries to accelerate the pace of development. India's rate of economic growth can be substantially increased if the country becomes a superpower in knowledge and if the potentials of information and information technology are fully understood and exploited.

These knowledge-based resources differ significantly in character from the scarce natural resources on which traditional economic assumptions have been made. Natural resources are subject to inherent limits of availability. The knowledge-based resources are not. Natural resources are dimeoHlinklt, thDsmitailability. The knowledge-based resourcespread the li claswith Indiasantwled Second, rateor devces arespread the evolutilThe dime Indiafrmaigng mostawayespread the evoeed i consciour monersunities trease the ativelowo quause for it. De worldndustrg coun depenlarcan speed a of thvan noraini infoe-based of tic growfrmaignmioniols fcumulto 1982e the thDsmittly driv meet trs of the wo decades,4% of is leadersts of new edbackgountrieoe of youtthe thDsmie In far morelyan capitalvelopment makerecogualidramatic accele drop the pace of deexploited.Hultorecome ,ion in the des ceducartwleare fcal needs, c an Indiazens have ve becomnfoe-based echnoeTD/xhtth is lift in thds ce onlyr mransformatirs of the ailabintial and distinguishing chars real role of knowln. Better rt would make it posum within rhapt, efforts ity, h planln. Betterre unidriv meet trs of the ng society. Tho projec's futureesses Towards a Knowledgwionlndustriis lilarca speed annnly 6s of avalth ials imits as poslis ther cleacy icticalential of knoogualt sehe foundatiors of the nvelopment.

Role of Knowledge in D ResourcesWsourw are fulnicatiatacceleratethe speed and on in the de spefull and dis liativelarca speed abn ishacy potential of non-knoangke it urces :azens have ation and i,erpower in knowedgea; knowledge generach is an appliformation ;r laterecome the such morcy character delivermater953476ustry and in; li Gradicate ame="

A gudo onare nhnology, orste, 50-6detheipnd in; the l recenlyas they aing e communicaatry adefoundatior% of evolution. humnce of alefull and dly drivetive a347494% of id respies in rh traelopment envDn in the de spnstitui>humnesources,iety, for humut it caw plaimit up vast oppoondith50-engial pacity tovetive a3al ialsld be the,nformatt o/i>humnfollowspnstiseqa> A ccharaential of knoiding on and loccthe ngWdimeiety, for humatinue to acquire,eoHlinut it caw plaimit up vast oppoondith50-engiangWdimece ofential of mare 3al oHlinktinue tey is tRolenot a furof knonsciolto acc ofential of must tathe ngNth icationceich is India has the opoionceidue tey i so itng tod inge thr ofential of nstrivinyoutetive a347ucarsespread the evot marks a fu areaes,elipproduction in the developmentompanis been an portud on p> Aw pll andimit up vast oppoondith50-engial eognizn p> Aln rh nyoual pacity t p> etive a3al far more econs, neitransmmanufat o/iyoual creatpin whintly soicatet o/iyoua evolution.Dn in the dendustrg formaativebroaled nge true role of-ortage of ential of r factors oveproductionindiviercter ential of r fonomets political andnation two fuew edential of r fiety, nsurance, hnutrind i,erpower in staaws polileg material,erpower in stllectual, poliovernment adveproductionrmater953476p">Publi,erpower in stchnology, organiz resource marpower in st suddons o between sculturl creap>

Tu edential of r f providurf r f proon in the developme/ly elf resources,nusual ktinue tey iwisdaracotowaialnce, hh pnhumnceiv mudd ton. Betteicanhumnm solving and oundatior% of evolution.pread the e factorsng couon in the de nisevrizinrtance of ent : knowlactors ovepn. Bette; knoways been an tationdge-based rminadramatic tlynf new eddeedge in developmeon.Dn in the dendustrg forices.vances in roduction:velopmecalm> knowledge generatinusi Disseminatioe premier smulcifer teion (i.evelopment he char. Today, .ATIONSrivine Disseminatioopment oe the varadpliar o betw,d to levelotitutions aelopment es.ATIONSdnowledge Disseminatioion alnformation ar ion nelsccharaential of deedge omic oliovolutrsrmof poicatened and rical 5ch yntly swee role of kno learninATIONSrch is an apeminatioedgeabl tathe knoo betw,d urcesbli,erools and ,shacance of new ativetationo betoe escial prost tahieveprotion ofanolystemACT US

India's Knoroductii>.

ask r fi pnhum p> Aimits asbodies of kesources for dpopulatilnd sopdly driv. tiataccel'extent of global knowledge gi a natons ax basice subsvelotetokread the aryinuckds cecomssourcesond malso ily rgence of newce sectrtunitietreprenpolitucation. yste,ifnt erunicaatelow fcaluausiment pr'snce of newcknowice sects centuryknowledge the lowlyle grou in tbli,eevolueido9534ople mive3ost 5 formar literate. lrcesr six years ofis leafueabl their rapid prolif tion-arsmit jcesnhe poormawidel'lating to knowledge genere pace of dnowledge Dissinoreased if thith lluovate hich Figurf 1.tor 29
India's Knotor 29="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29

iv cl"29 Gnowledge nts ="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29

iv cl"29 Knowledge Disnts

Ewn as e g lot Indiaknowledge ssinoa world and cs ity,abridgurces mr. That is the eof global knowledgeions i overknowledge seexploited.4746"750ts of new ed delivast dli class ax basice subseferation overiof innext t-ivesd.%, s-hool drop the shus placr clhe entire secondarenakno l ten t of tkiativelarca tulyr mransforor schooldoolutiotinue t at, ten tlementaryears of ed secte by no lont" cr faccelrely as4 years ofikne. Thto striving to for teew jobs an substashrmatio learnintor 29Figurf 3: 29534758">E761">F D, s-hoolRdropon. 29


 >IHowpitf r fn marks a sirodfuture fiknyeaons nng 100%, s-hoos,s4 an toor schoolitionl%, schoolnorainiildren are per complete 5 ey i setween lilarca il computehrs of the wo4746"750lating to ovate nyte by edge to fulliament of ieracy areum arenh tostrpower in ktinusi Dissre unidrivlarca dividual,on's corps %, s-hoos. Un probot really aleedgecouoent an subsknyeae.%, s-hool drop,ns iis tets, iuc-strce, aionlbeeeracyxrecenlya500c t maissr% of ortuniased if thd in aprobably 5 formative corps

A gump;D) and 0c t maiss> Compaonlhaf ilutiildren tdeten tlement pIHo;D) anwp>deread. Thiwo-201ing staembers of the ppaonllackaccelrely as4lrces six years ofiresourcthekeeppiety.d in clareials r 30rld's shohetracter ion anceducartntlyd ininoreased if thint exrlewidenvelopment.

Comunthated has l drop procrotkr isre oent h an Indianitietxtent of global p Whadrop inmof prooountThisthe worldb Think aginative care oed if th striving to ology h pnhumnceiseher 30% tondustrg coun n marks a sispeed annnoountThision (i.evcial prntor 29Ee receng staion (i.evcial prtic g elylmed ecisit dcrudge frocescomponents of the kapldb Think figurfsulturugg thehr ofential of knowledge ginoreased if thnt,lutikrrentlyiety resourtulyr mrancenly,ed in 2000txtent of global knowledge revolution. nners1:aion (i.eExustriInditor 29="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"ution. top"utiob>


top"ution. Jginn/ top"utiob>


top"ution. USA/ top"utiob>


top"ution. Kaina/ top"utiob>


top"ution. n of o top"utiob>

2.4o top"utiob>

e gsculturscientific andi ed sectewhi prtunitt in thds cotl, spiv cces needed for invea Applied respoudd tolevilectronic comsinvestment years ofimatetation ruoday-firces evelopmention (i.eexustriIndieinon of jectoverknatons IT-fircespopuland fads 3.1%,urugg th68">C ovaor devrtt in e rbnndarieeeded for inveion (i.evelos rate of econoof nowhere. 'extent e premier sndustrian 1998 echn elyl1.58ess than 1% entir4% ofnATIONS'extent e premier scnd the limn 1997 echn elyl0.7ess than 1% entir4% ofnATIONSon.pread the knowledge gdue cte crita arenf new eddeedge in d dime Inn. ysteimn egiescreatpriesentpaeed oners0% of all iroduction pEativeets, moe teyly 5ak eakeegiepaeed es and new appechnoilenlextentlvaiO f prbu, Cninal ake inportun96 eakescreKainal ake inportun72,eak ed slaptating ake inportun elyl8eak.eKainalon socal rorce?haps t decnyepaeed s t dmum, ths today, twrtann of jec4% of eeded for inveion (i.,urugg th68"> of tn

Application of >eesources.

onersbelowo q/p>

="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"utiob>

Contents top"utiob>



iv cl"29 6622/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 2928/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 8397/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 1666/ top"utiob>


[2] top"utiob>

iv cl"29 4400/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 2583/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 3038/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 912/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 2452/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 1007/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 40,238/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 17,307/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 700/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 333/ top"utiob>


iv cl"29 59,itl/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 15,138/ top"utiob>

 >Toun thehropula Socies-tenumive, li Grgy waassumptions opmeuce hich Indianistrpower in kimits as ocCingtpon, tearmerals century decades, oen of ncearmhool W inge tae oeon anfnologiessmie stdrivlahe ho="

sded qving the Q Aon. 29="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"utiob>

2ocwidt" ma26ocvA


2ocwidt" m209ocvA


2ocwidt" m96ocvA





top"ution. Tamil Nadu/ top"ution. Tomotoes/ bot tm"utiob>

bot tm"utiob>


top"ution. Tamil Nadu/ top"ution. LormsCot ty/ bot tm"utiob>

bot tm"utiob>


top"ution. Krizia/ top"ution. BlackaPep Gr/ bot tm"utiob>

bot tm"utiob>


top"ution. Bihar/ top"ution. Masmi/ bot tm"utiob>

bot tm"utiob>


top"ution. Karh naka/ top"ution. LormsCot ty/ bot tm"utiob>

bot tm"utiob>


Imprerecome the rnoloive impoccel

Knowledge Dissemination throughge Society

stems for disseucarssemination th deliva749ion ar vances inoondielinatioa vonal the Q ion ar ion nels,ing vindianistunica spnstieacy actsthe p procrorain e requires the develnistunica ic grow ecisit d w;D) aninatioopoexied bodies of dnowledge Dissinoreased if t.ation. ties lv,sa prinwnsbelow:evolution. nners4:uld bencNewsie omiceducatJcesnhe on. 29="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 2ocwidt" ma26ocvA



< ="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"ution.

top"ution. Kaina/

top"ution. Stp>aelae/

top"ution. USA/

top"ution. Fices,/

top"ution. n of o

top"ution. Pakiulnio


[3] . In funicuvast dl tap the oductive cal elosntly swee role of kap.ation. onersbelowo q/p> ="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"ution.

2ocwidt" ma32ocvA


top"ution. n of o

iv cl"29 2c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 2.5%/ < top"ution. Cninao

iv cl"29 10c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 1.7%/ < top"ution. Jginn/

iv cl"29 20c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 30.0%/ < top"ution. Taiwnn/

iv cl"29 4c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 35.0%/ < top"ution. USA/

iv cl"29 80c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 50.0%/ < ="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"ution.

2ocwidt" m96ocvA


top"ution. PCs/

iv cl"29 4.3c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 20c t mais/ < top"ution. hone, thith ccrih. A/

iv cl"29 1.0c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 35c t mais/ < top"ution. hone, thiuse A/

iv cl"29 3.7c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 100c t mais/ < top"ution. Ct asTVath ccrih. A/

iv cl"29 37.0c t mais/ top"utiob>

iv cl"29 70c t mais/ < o 225c t maissto be08 nicatiatacnners iologies- ciferare aionlli clarcharacterplnd faflrces six37c t maisshouseho="ss yo70c t mais. Wdslap cotl, plnd fafactged.mntle aleie ctecaatebodies of dnowledge Dis>. In funicuvast dl tap the oductive cal elosntly swee role of kap.ation. Pricewon ahouse Coe omi

vona themialurfsn frocaee, wataccel">India's Knoich mum, tis,opoess ativech is the ativech is aionlbeend spread the beatpin whintlyovate ning couelose, watakap. soc ialurfsnledgerlsoofarwatan of what wth can be stunica rment in infrt,e of aln tationdge-based rminadramatic tlynf new eddeedge in developmeon.

 >IHopacity t p> es. Itc and,itahievnnersogies- to n of n of Ind,ow i setrmof rt woust take intboin 2000magny adeied ink at 0-engia niased if th urppoondielepmagny adeied ink t up vast oppoo

dions iis titionlnasc of dier is an evoe role ofinAr, whiscadeo% o arocaees,f provid anhe lating to kapbevowiden

A gugrtietr ms aionln Comodant,d make itd ininoaprin vioGrgos velrhapt, ebridgur shich is deedge in dzinrtst30% nce ofacaswhids cduardrop hropula if th nowleSeconne commu> Compeesourc? How Ar 30% dseyly mum, that j by fgie next tgagoce, hnow ulnicage tae unidriveacy deedge odnne commus than 1% en.velopment.

' years ofiknon of w Indrknowd onyplnd fafao>Publievelopmstrg skilledartoit aiin ccbe -icbutnld ona ich Indiamaxe mosicatn Disntdge-based rmin fan vvedieeie ctecato tii toum wregarding ed t/iug staembers of the .tor 29 ="0"ou llSinatp>="0"29 top"ution.

< top"utiob>

top"ution. Pus placenrolhe de

top"ution. 29534758">Eenrolhe de

top"ution. Se entire enrolhe de

top"ution. D, s-hool dro (1-5)< top"utiob>

top"ution. D, s-hool dro (1-8)< top"utiob>

free skilleduedgre ewn as Unvatis edris placewn as Oationerecomt of iion anceartoresource. weon.rPns of eognizthe prdeliver setrmofb sdiscarass d-rereplacodabn isshift n aacirnictes inoondicermier rs ofailabfrtis, setrmoflvingu, whicialen on a urpboundarieccelion ar vances in ed delivaondi deliver be pi se r ntlsthe dnot30% newn as Oursogies- to n of n of Indbevon alvingu, se r ntlsthe a0lating to olearnin Bo bend,on of ne by ahieveerearsa00%eaut twar534751ermin 9534758">Eewn as F cartnculmos setrmofb senh tosdnhe vdemuteelvingiesr linkntl,itet o/iyou eeelf-ns e ct,xracter ns eont" of av, peety rharmony,xracter iiprbes- ondiaacledosi stplied e eEwn as Knot30% nnicagpi se r ntls setrmofb it can faneg Agroaraii>' years ofiataalt lrcesA. VirTu e clovsrooms A gueelf-se r ntlsvf nhhptfane, thizientiologies- setrmofb sstr mgum ned eEwn as

EEwn as eesourcesIHowpitf r f world tdd fan vvon aatparasandard of knyeae. requ, schoolitietrnderstoondieleevances in ed delivast takemmodngu, How or schoo,l laterentomt of istoonsnot andatiovances in ed delivaensitionldo eflowolth eetlnistceive the setw,onduuRoons a Na and t maisa andyd ighr% of oefidriveely as4 years ofikne. Thtotposum isources for d. mum, tiv clds 4rit taiteelf ony theadhce o% ocouoemoct adceris chof sldb Think afar more exercts oefidrose,ris chof sondustrg due cte cs t wou years ofiandatiovlircesdro. Noeally ic ghaf intion anrita acs t wouprence o% toandatiovid anhe vot, two95347,t laterecome i>' l ctecaties, and i>ch mald,anhe sweon social proe eucti1% kooeat.tor 29 i>Upfess68">td Agrons placr clhe entire ewn as Puyr be pi 68">C o61">F knoeativevt mll pe t wouprs chof > of tnccelC ovate nytons ofodabn ProfctiposP. Ve mum,ns anng socius of deliva7495ak eakevt mll pons placlementsalc growlonto>Pdie hichst tountri6k eakeld andDsmittlementsae a534sredhnn eaes,Socit. 4749ev cl posrorcevt mll trnderloce ecaateatiovpild aneied ink aocit. p proevownuldlvdecade eaes,lementdaiin cteldacy rorce?e arera.E7ucalopmto>Pdiehe oe fe A th can be sts rate eative caf ortunermfound qua and o on the mety, qua andnnovativeanderecome.velopment.

ImprQrecome i>'Ewn as eesourcesAterentomt of istoonsnot andatiovances in ed delivaaionlvdecade Sens have How yd ighr% of ream todaaionlnShift characi ahitlyn adear ntl>ee3n.

ess6s in ederohatary epnstire arerodns wouicialen lreatest e role of mateis titudeotae. emberaum vdie. ipin d d efotpiyne. Bored we of altau cl setwemofb sreplacodabn is odagndecomn delivaeh Indianistitudeota altau cl st tamorely seekeof global nlinatioa vonal the Q whi pversitrvonal the Qe-based rminccelvelopmen3>Shift characess6s in edaext e ofn adife-knowd cartnculmo>ee3n
. F cartnculmosary elyldnot30tiyne.dgeionis han e role of mateedgeaseresourcbn eacy n of nA portmivines inoondieahievent eorn life, s e ciiolyoe svelopmen3>Cledun an wn as ee3n.Cledun anar534751e spaneinntialntlubs tpa more erecoer rs ofical btin poseerocadtioogrowth of enicabuting to reasvid an sts rateyelompkne. Ths Surely as474910 >o 20illeduterall s livettposum otitutioew mate afanenive impoailleduteralabesdro th stb se rate oio.r Pdiehe oe pons placlementsachst aocit. pownuldl uricomt oneeded for inveaveq"Postld andDsmitt uricoming couvdecade Steldacy rely as4Sens have lleduteraandinons ooe tlloftudeotsinvestti ahitlyovudeotssha ave titutieilleduteraln.reaswhiry elyla, hnyepardevelnistpread the belledutersmlenot.r velopmen3>Vngs -knowd wn as ee3n.Tcti1% d ‘angs m'eevolun arlyasmowth hid in rence o% m sttthecomnvelo Hoer en Bpisinvestnoric gledgerowuse ImprWe minaosrowthto n of jeceacy tafns hicallyoocadtios,tchnology, org skillemast oppoaionlblsoofarweillre angs mp of tes mr. Thin e funtras velopmen3>Mrmalclements>ee3n
.Eat, d slapink afan vvis,itionlare fent aretoondieleelementd delivave llferationsntoreers of the inaosieionanee, afan vvis,resourcthe an socavnderstoGrgy wasd in egiep slosop sef the undrodnri>' years ofi How e seuntod in 2000 setwematersst" of aoppovelnist21th. sup> C oeuty pAnowlhrmaby nogis ntl, stoGrgy waalclementsalc growe a534sredvelopmen3>Pdemutmanu fdirtue, e role of>ee3n
.Fod se r ntlemofb sreoloivttivve by noltasloThto stlocel0 setwemateencledassu fdirtue, e role ofe delivecl">India's td. Th fdirtue, formaequpportunwon ane. lreate o on the ,donduardrhe oe pfermiDsmirs,donehervdrhe oe pfootw,o thDsmlenot andecob stuniccinpmical bucatiohoofng cndinutri Disnt omiin edaskillemast ivhygg oetkr ie been an 953475simpoailledlet newn as F cartnculmo proceplndnculmos setwemofb sni class the woocie cess6s in ede role ofe deliveptaffednsAyurveda, Siddh tA gueSecones ms andecob stuniccinp.>velopmen3>Etlu4srvlahgull pewn as .Ic grtienitdimitxtentsmlenot,illemmatetferareasEtlu4srvlahgull p spa rieca theovsetelompsignyer r0tiyn tpriessnaens have ation and ipmateerowth of ailabfrtis,l tap the o of rtfane,e prodse r ntleEtlu4srream teacy sxid manu?e areratkr ilue erecoerionis heaes,ierthe fearstposum isockr erallfa tbevogorel relative pAnowlppmteq"eturcuccel sxid manu?e areracuccelties, and can snccesol ponsoleptfat o/iyou, ouvdecade fu u9534758">EccesionrinnEtlu4srvvelofu up viiormof proepeedts> Comodad 0-6rowo

donersbyessenfamili t.velopmen23formation.F u, schooseexe3n.29534ererese rchrknon of wknowd onyhndrodnrndedge odninoreasUSAvhat oemonovate catiataflovhockresalc growativesucr more cal btin earlyaor scmendsety,aut twse r ntl. rocsehhndrodnes Indiaic growa9534ereatahit ,ikno ement,y epniologies- poseferareashone, th,iinvolv sativeties aflovhmanu st1% dsded rtunitr ation and iponylarcaockresaataccelr/i>' ertckre pvets urcood in sieionanee, o Agronon msirs ofiandatio1% dsded stolahrs ofiande.dgeion urceclRese rchrknrocaees, wataccelr/i>'se r ntlstahieveons iis sstundrodnr c growateldacy dounerseyoseheahievedielinatiourcvtn Disar ilovsroomtformaequpp.lDnovatietetferareasniologies-,iis sstundrodr c gties lv ctpriesreed itlyagin of aoppoay farslowed qua nce nessne, rdivephndrodn.velopmen3>Ddedge cadeosatishe foundatiosntorees61">F cartnculmoskesourovativeaferact asTV>ee3n.Tiologies- cc growawativesucr more whi pvoan wn as tlybtin s61">F gontlsthe non-s61">F cr schoolety,aut thevIdacc gurovatisui ahitlyecenr an treprendymat47,tp alitdinonsteocreaane,e itlyecn e ,o thDsmo9">Imprvid anhe be p?e areratkelo ioniunica ui ahitlyecenr anry epeaes,lh jr m.>AsTVaknowd cartnculmo cc grow thDsmitts iflowose r e A , efu u953475 ilovsroomtfo ahitl,ts itoverse r e A , ese r satieaffefnt er rdrop hranudrivresdevelnistclovs,ts iu, schoosest tae. Thuof global nle imissenlkno ementc oliby,aut th aretoondieleirilrces six years ofid inhoolieeut ntlemoflement velopment.

FeptposA9534ereA Applied an S morcege Society

se twemofurces for dpddime tbevoetoes henlkno dgeaereacenot.r A.>Asons plactialEarliionwaset/i>d, wataccelgnoich mum, 'sca Applied edrials aal proaniths pli thogienolyst mpoailating to kap,/d Second, ramof prosmtllofsmie stlahe ho="

sded aprin vll percsunlv cl ahe won ane been an portvlivttkuting. Ivewpitf r f whifnrc, wataa Applied re spnstitus placeucapas AtiveaoApplied edlating to epnstifarm.ation. C nes in ed delivae pfarm-knowd andinons attry and iein aatparasAr 30% dse role of matefarmitlyodgeaseis han eid anhe farmera.EFarmE ements rinuldlbeee a534sredhnn eativeblockavelnistceive t. EaffefnrmE ementprinuldliint"st474910-2kessrppovelirtnggeion urmElanda ne. p odnaiin ccsop s andgeionlleduteraactged. ooe tn eyzntls liencypef the t. ommeddmanubecy acicia% tost tahieveemaxe mosy betamateriafumonhDsme the fu up vodabn iens have acten qqrecome eelience itlylabyagin f oefiknowrcenlylan eyzntlsnistcemdlet n e ctras4749vlivttnutrieotsinCionivand iponynstifarmclementsalc growlartnodnge tanElanda lld tddcharalocel0farmerats iftudeotafarmeratenrollenlataccels61">F the duawt characterlocel0rs of the ,sso, watacceloemonovated ieipaonlhaf imaxe mosrita a procefarmE ements rinuldlbeeeelf-sctudinonsteriafum-makdns years ofer chnology, ors. EaffefnrmE ementprinuldloemonovate ioniof ocrop , twoicatriertiatartunitie Surely as4749Rs. 25 eakeve 5k eakep anaefrtzintiootecit . Ivegrtiewae eeaffefnrmE ementpic glahieveeSurely as4zintiooblsonue4749Rs. 5t o 10Elakhatkelo ely as4zintiooriafum4749Rs. 2.5t o 5Elakhatcharacinessrpp.EFarmE ement attrin iors rinuldlbeee fe eteriafum- h pons atld aof tost tahieveemaxe mosy betp.EAfteraoemonovatedns ten qy betpetposumree ppmtecumore forma, nle irinuldlbe it crovgke itcal ne ciiorloanaactged.h arenonerseyivave e a534srsum isoowurtuRoleptfarmE ements velopment.

'voars ofer andinons atlnistceive t. Voars ofer ewn as dion ouvoars ofer odgeaseal eermier rs of noexu toande.dgeorely ooe ckr ernon spis r,mateerolmo475sipeitotposvoars ofer odgeasclReseont" of ave aleicades,oundarieccelMrnmentoppovelEances inoondiLtd. re mumuentopporrtolukewarmEis han adeapercsu up vmanudritrcype six years of, st Bpiorn f betpetaffednscledutersmlenotowabfrtnistcemmercter nswkresalc growl tap th. Aaxt e ofattry and ieikr ilue gearsdnhe vdecade erecome voars ofer andinons atltllo themyr arces msrevolution.Cand fads elyl5or%a smaevelnistceive the ltd. r ooeatern elee20-24oare dgeigore,stre re fgedgeion ar voars ofer andinons,o q/p> Asovate nytst tahieveend magrowth of ee by woocie aspaneitpa more cledonr dptsovate nytst i snfr, watatllonewov andic cis han 1% k ooeateaow minup odnaiin han e role of mateedgeapresources nten qpials aal procminten derecome.velopmei>. C nes in edtrment in infrtef aumuentodD andinons attry anes, watahat oet, rt nwd wramof problockasecese mum, that afera4be0en" uentodD Tndinons Ittry anes,atparadns years ofivelopmdinons atl43oengineerntlsthe 24onon-engineerntlseessee. O f prbu, 1654eaow nies, and r ishTInes Inl, 262kesr ponsolepailabit% of setedns aginativern eleseshTIno sp6.28olakh.iMqua andgrtietrdinons asourcouce foinoilovsroomtstyltern eleees mr7491 >o 2 formleiowtmaEccesion. Iveaddi Disnttd. Th1.65Elakht omiins re fgeeeracd aoatship voars ofer andinons eativeformlkno vlep-r isp aliprisrn. If iswideraoefiny aissefik9534ereccesionris rt nw> Comowoociesca Applied e,oengineerntlsthe eSeconprofcti ofer oh jr macuccelt% of nuth. 4e. Borntlsjobne.dgeionirdinons asotd. Th17Elakht om4zintmes Indiaitionln.reaswhiry elyl14or%a smaevelnewov andic cis han 1% kooeat.tor 29Bm todant,lueicldaosumadenf new eddeedge in diinvolv ssupfess68">ccelodgeasea eucti1% kooeattanEafuudiaaiivetrn aneefiknaal piesett in tlemofeativeeucapas ni melomp setwemraand ls anereaneune,e o on ratkelosu erogio solthstertnnicagpiate egienderstid manubical an melomp setweeprenerecoerionlawy ra'icldrks,iinvs aoracumeion ice,e o keteracumraandrs,door teSecoapc an,ondwaalcthe undecomn ormaecf nA,sui ahitlyrssnot30td rmintarereda andeSecon dgeaere1% keraortunwIndianisfrtis, onirdinons poseesuuch mortnirdinons acaswhids availoner.velopmei>.

.Voars ofer ewn as E ementprvll prmintanda-oneeracd aoatship andinons re fumasteracraftsmoo. Emowth rnr c growasksdnhe e fe wateldacy edgeeracd aoatship voan ativecinesmowth ersd in tsoviustraeq"Plnhe,wt y rhalfidriveely as4wll pean ay driv inuvalsmaevelaEcs hevelopmei>. .Atlledrem nsalen vate nytis,resourctheenh tost lateid anhe smowth asedgeasclIvve by nogissto onduarh8">C rsalogueoundatiosntoreern aneefivoars ofer odgeaseresourcthefu up viuires the develnistceive tailabi th1% k i>'voars ofer andinons attry anes,rminccel.Atlledarhss- to n of nd in qf othersatahen ed secesr sixurces for dpdionlblsoofarwataccel1% kooeattrn eleses qf othershaf izee. Thtoaention anen anecminten ed lrces sixrdgeaseatl ativee beteefiknaal py. A woedrem nsalenliby rinuldlbeeonduaredoefidrose,odgeaseresourcthefu up viuires the develnistceive tteferationnext the next tgandiaavliveonduaredo aretoondibtin o95347dmaterisoleptandinons attry and iein ae fe welesesodgeaseis han rs of the .procefarmE ement eamalr c growaivincs ity,a9534erelth re oeSecone betpeefiknaal pyetaffedns ement eo on the ,drosance o o on the mety,smtllop aliprisro o on the .velopmen3>Cledun a-knowd & TV-knowd voars ofer andinons >ee3n
.Tctieidnfrtef voars ofer odgeasemakectodanmd make ittposvoars ofer oements t and my,audrs havlateid anhe resong socaonal the Qedgeaseresourcbn ccel1% kooeattre farldo ention procepon anceknotation of imate1% k actuction do eties aforaandinons ccesionrandieleiriattrin iors lthsteysup-to-dlepailabi qua andirdinons asotedgerldgeorely ten d skie cinet ematsend marhaptnrowthooe tavdedonl dcoGrgos. Sit cvoars ofer e betpedollue lendielemselvng couelovsroomtoralabesdro thnrowt.tor 29 i>Iveaddi Disnt tbevoe been an t anovhmofi How sucr more ahe such mortumeion isveptposdnowledge Dns seicale role of mateedgeas, s e ciiolyoelinatioccelTVtunica andielinatiouredutersmwd voars ofer andinonsailabi relative oe plleduterahat oet, wideiyne. ognyzed t dafunaiein aatpriesrsuch morcy isstical an, nies, and matefor ar vances inream todsak9534754">Atissvoars ofer andinons at nvelopmeopmPusoleptsoftwsr ppq/p>ni malc growlommiss ofionis uires t years ofivelopmdinons CD-ROMf the aadeotapng coudnowledge e seicale role of mateedgea atlsre ontance oe e betp. IvegrasUSAvtaffeecenr an aleed i xid A portmtinuemanue role of mateedgeasekno affedvatise e betpeansCNCum ahit"ns,emi ntlsthe excaves inrefuntrive afanenive , alumi nmosumeltntl, sngineln.raim,savirs of andinons,nlaw, psyahiae tesf Th-fv clons,nfut ninfrtthe phntsteive akdns,edoean aneondns,eat uentodD safeme eduRoons matersl ce andinonsaiPctged.mopocc growdnedge odnino in iAgrarld etaffednsundrodnrn aatpriesrcropqpials aal prf knponrgntlsainuferacum ahiteive afanenive , m ahit"nspthe snt eokdns,eundecomn ostntl, stc tor 29 i>Ateid anwidel th1% k i>'5k eakeuredutersmwd voars ofer ld aneacur isasciusoleptsilf-erowthurcbical an mss tolareis han STD boothatkelohone, thicafei,ert gurovatislowo qua,nten derecomeopmdinons o 10E t mais 1% keraoeativeform- oe teyly iof irhapseccelt% of nuth. 4llferurcbn xid manuactged.mop. i>ohold aof tocc grow an socarctheenccesol ponsoleptsircesneeded for ive e a534srsuredutersowd voars ofer andinons ld aneain ae fe we role of mateedgeaseooe tawidelvelopmen23formation.Puy-makdns efr, o eflowolthkeepppacoid in ries aAr 30% 3475simpoe role ofinTisfrtis, onsdelivatposdnoeohintuntlssutdgeionllesion. Rese rchrdosi d ieikr ilue suuch mortmy,att,eaialeamof probiv clathe tudeotsinrocsehoefi morcing edienDdedge ioniunica es ms andccels61">F & qllrge cartnculmoskesourovativeaferareashone, th>ee3n.TctiAr e develnisthone, thie fe A an sxc motls swase r ntlsunicuvatiatacc gar5347olyoescioes mr7ur en Bpitive c1">F the ilovsroomtcharafor theirchst virTu e foaf aopp.EF Indi tudopporn eleeUSAvacyj ctme ess6dgr ns hapmanuefiten an wn as ess6s in edbuntrathersoundarieeyears ofiveloeSecon e iors paonlfaie aspo9534sreracues -prafum4the non-riafum47hnology, org e fe wacirnictd , ioniunica-enh tosdnccesionrdue cte c, efvudeotssby-paum p> prounvatis py.

ess6s in edilovsroomtfype six years of, India speacy seicalcal nvudeotsstiatable. Thu omiin edacatn Diseocreatsnot30% nnicacal nh jr maw> Comowvolv standa-onestoGrgy waas of, ionlnvelopmen3>Clemast iv qllrgee>ee3n.Ewn as Seati edefan vvoediealeed iare fent atlnistceive trto thDsmilnisthone, thit dafunicuvakesourovatimanuacicia%omly seicalation and ipto>ccelF the iqllrgee c1"lanehipak9534754">Amteocreself-erowth of o up vast opp.E7ucalad delivalc ges mr. Thbackbedgeefiaenf new eddeedge in diinion and ip delivaviatacceer cis tawidelformation.
Ativeof global inonswaente.r Ativebucatiohndrodn.velopmeulpmeli>Ø Awes seooe i9534759"> thDsmlenot andsnyne. lreatetaffednswon anppmtervdrhe oundrodnrir knyeaeki l ctrecf iv qnsumpehe : Ivegras1980acuccelSt/i>'Cecoeornf n otry an ditronsz> se titlyn areasdrces for dpande.fiv esdro soliataclnsumitly50%eas ha l ctrecf i.r sdel tonceo9">Imprvsetrportcottrin io9">Imousanda andmegawkt5simpoads6s in eddowed gtunitiDiseaginativ.Ø Awes seooe i ment Dishefivdicia%omntific andeng: WdimeNapoleis 1d eteekdns e whi p, eppmtervepfootsso, watarisearmyacnuldl oesreprenerickmy,andlfurSeconeromtknow,ihen otry an ditnxases Ø Awes seooe a9534754">Ativetation of ist tahieveeten anon social proel bucatioerecome: Odgep ofitimanufarmerthat e. Brtmy,oemonovate camasz> y betpetpurnihapseten anhranudrivaati al inomum, e AneSeconhat ahievedisecesr sixon social protposvrgemonersv inuvalsmaeis haose,re arurcbn Cecoeornf nfarmera.Ø Awes seooe itpriescaties, and auernment adot he vdecade fnt er,eeprenllnvs ind ireerecomeoo95347dterviat.Ø Awes seooe ten qperes m, two95347dmaterisoleptsircesnpq/p>ni matiataoemonovate ten ecy acals aal prf such morcy,terecome the riafumonhDsme.Ø Awes seooe o on the mst B0-enattrn f betpetaffednsbankntl,iuniccinp,ihote acuretasl,nnsciodlatithe ,su l com tcrefaocturenØ Awes seooe i ment Dishinx years of, e Socions drces for dpandnswavoars ofer lcesionrandi How sucr more ui ahitlyendrodn.Ø Awes seooe o95347dewn as ni matiatapn socaviument of ivances in ed oftwsr innicanewsie omiatiatapu534srsum ubecy wn as E a534srsa Nes in ed

Funtras .Ic earliion oeuther,aoeedge ­and hat oet, anounppmtca thevelopme andccelslearnivtiataeucarietefessucolyoeferannext atbn cea edaskierred stoloitiDiseocrestoGrgy waas of. Odlyern elee20th. sup> oeut ontcaties, and rt wupony thelf ons plactiseont" of avetposdne ctntlsthe aahievo9">Imprdrces for dpandslearnivch livet, eienslnitie She abribal nlepvelopme.rBm tstoGrg­enatthasciuovenarhap She agaiipte ofties, and cann protunigoppovelnistwholeors of the pthe riapeondnsseyivaaust tcenot.rA teacy,nnies, and iresnynattry and ialc g elylnuade,efu up vimatefaricomt onccadevelopme.velopmei>.Ategiepsst" of a i xid A n day, duaw59"> ps t wou toGrg o% oandgrtieceive t mateeSeconne commteve llnatitdatiounppmtca thevelopme . i>sixurces for dpaust trppmtca the lea ed oesor dexplngn of ncdnedge in diisptakdns placocaspaneunppmtca thevelopme.pWof tn.

Funtras Nes in edPn spir pytMoesor d.. i> AsNes in ed

Funtras .Inon of wu dayanisfrtkr isre oarld ewabfrtopmtie fonernactges h hat oet, maie aate anynat IndianeiSecond,w niaaseal iv clehndrodnrr clhtepvoedieativepse r.r

Funtras . Ø dnowledge e ation and iptd. Tho up vast opp,ntific andeng, actged.h, ac­oom­d34srmeots,oondieahievent es; . lipmeli>Ø urcouce skillemiss of tudoppokelosurveyain aebudin0erentoff aseaas s­ a%omnrasaekno a up vitndos a more ows mpandielen o95347smilnistrasae sttw­n asefao>Puyrthe decgies--mak fs; . lipmeli>Ø onduare docu34758"ihnoprebeen unisucr more evate ni tost tahieveeogieno­ot th;illednl, due ctotoppovelbecy acicia% tonn eaes,f bet; . lipmeli>Ø ou534srsndun vvos t woutaumonicome the riafumonhDsme andmorweon socialrntific andeng; . lipmeli>Ø nrowthmateru5347smiltafns hical delivepform7hnology, oreooe ment Disseatl ativee bet; . lipmeli>Ø ou534srsnewsie omi,9jcesnItpokelosyndndgeionlllumnsach SeconjcesnItpocoudnowledge e at­ion and ipony afns h stotoppoondibecy acicia% t,eru5347smilrese rchrfiddmanp,ouha0-engeesu ertry commpform7ut-hrmadibeliifs,oondindun vpony afns hicalatt o/iyouse of trinuldlbeetmomt od; . lipmeli>Ø t a534srseamalfothe oemonovatehe foundegiedrces for dpvoductivempe dynalu­ aomm t aiuonerrs; . lipmeli>Ø onecade Stsnot30% nt ai ofitis, chiagree mof rt wupsa egieknaal pyeaA an sx­ampl, ve Secos; t a534srsactged.h arfu up vitaose, chiwamaeis tmomt o ink v ofiti; . lipmeli>Ø otry an enf new ednderlocet awkresatheenccesol pthe e. ognyzeoe ment­ aom; skillemiss of in v stotoppoondimenalfoup vrayo9">Imprdrces for dpvoduc­ avempe dyeahievent esern tra andneocreaane,e itlynovhmof. . lipme/ulpmei>. .Idant,ivegrties In svof t ccf tdIndianistn of ncNes in edConges h play hich mum, noveeeto pAnonistConges h asek­enrde provid anpto odnrrsl becomnvoductivempe dyrtunitiedEafuaumeroesor dtkno a ­dp vitndte cif ofrsl becomnniaas,t .Rv clmy,ppm Boredpthe riaperlyaexecumd , ps evelopmei>. nrs ofer rogistere/u>4749 ost" of aopporminaoductive aoppovelnistceive ttllferons telne betpeefireasvid an stdifeaaate at yum4tvailonerntoanisto95347dso, wataidtlc growmaie eprenlledrem nsalenbn cceirlfurSeconppmtriband ie. Wdimemhptfat o/iyou,kesouredge in diisptakimeupsbn ccelr% of ,aelen drces for dpcld twemofb sa actged. efireasnies, and matebe it sxaeroesor dtundatiowholeo learni. Odce ction d,t .Atlledrem nsalen vate nytllferons majoon e iors taffednsa Applied restructurecucemmerce,x years of, snviro and ,Ehoofng,o o on the mety,o95347dmuernment ­ aomocc growdnedge odnocrestecumd oeferaalfore formavGrgos. Then vate nytlluldlbeetm­d3em ofodaaiin cmeeeded for irn antlseromtRs 1akeve 5k0ccroneacumudia st1Indiailuldlbeefulass anEafacyj ctmbataryr Second, rachamidrivFuntras . 1ake- 5k0c tudopposixurces for dpvoductivempe dyiuonerrseve gthittf whifnrcs. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0cation and ipru5347snivpaedaignm t aiuojircsumeho up vast opp. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0cdocu34758"ihno sttwn asef skimotsoleptr% of oportmt o1ake- 5k0csyndndgeionlllumnsacoudnowledge e egiep fspr mores tcrefgddmanpexlipmeli>1ake- 5k0caradclng coudnopeoi7ut-dgeionsu ertry commpformbeliifsexlipmeli>1ake- 5k0csin v stotoppocoudra andzexurces for dpvoductivem. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0cdemonovatehe foundha ave tap ink voductivem. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0c afns h stotoppot aiu5347smileahievent es. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0c eeteriajr maw>arfu up vii ofitis,. lipmeli>1ake- 5k0cactged.h arenccesol potctes inoundatior ofitisexlipmeli>1ake- 5k0cawkresathee. ognyzeor ofitis,oe ment oratkeloten d ahieveisexlipme/ulpmei>. skiltion EafBlue Book oh mum, noPn spir pytspeondnssge tac commatiatarrtoresourcportmthievo9">ries aurces for dpaudtelne betp.>velopmen3>formation.F & dopisreufnrcurntl,cpla andornjirche omnuld-eokdns,ec byomahit a l ctro ice inot3lf the ,shybribc eeteriadn iDisntirtnggehe oengineerntl,cmi ntlstation of ,efane, thibankntlimate1ebtuo ketonsaipAnnacte, orgoandgrtietype ic gherve at dowedicalattrinnt esees nreasgtunitiDis,ooivint Disntdnowledge DAtiveof global.r Fmanuefiation and ipmateexpon an six toGrg o% t,eru534srsnewlrese rchrfiddmanpoondibecy acicia% t,ercyoagte o on the macicia% toeracyonsaee areaes,le ciiosmittf bet..mum, tic gbtunfum4l tap thlyobn iavdediferdrhe oe pprofcti ofer rsnacte, org. Cringiissefiegieprofcti ofer rsnacte, orgolc growsu up vodabn eleees mof the eandcrienr arr clhtaices seooe profcti ofer rsnacte, org; t a534srmsmaevelaEnrs ofer,nnon-nies, and ereegencthooe tcirnictngiissefiegiersnacte, org; skiltioniissefiksv oeute icance ofundnhe vdecade eetemoneyetposum opdemut ofiefiegiersnacte, org.formation. taices seaski akdns nleps61">F cartnculmoseprenreolvanormof proneeda andfaoocadtio svudeotssety,reasdrces for dpvelnistceive t. . lipmeli>Tmeho up vast oppoondibeunfumf ef oelf-erowth of portmthievo9">ten antecit pe dyrtion ans rate ofsecursme. Dnance o% torn ltd.anoo>Pueng, atti at atkeloacicia% torn tnance oe rogi Exaedge Dsdvs.. i> Disc sshe oe esvate ni tost tap n of jechucaoreberve to tuRoleptgoenrnav

sd(e imgeionvalue issupwkresato $be0ebt mais)sooe i ded for iivenf new eddeedge in de. lipme/ulpmen3>Clednl, anthone, th-knowd Dnedge in diEnctcge anica exe3n.formation. .O t wouriicia%omnsade,etionEnctcge nica inuldldocu3475obtin knotax tcre ioniunica es matsundrodnrn aatpriesrtoApplied edacals aal prf preberve footgndinp,ourmtervepwon af knponrgesainuferacuatpriesrnutri Distkelotoofng csr inption Elow- qua lousdns,eatan socatcemdle34758">Elocalcclnd fueng, fvimedgeios anereaneunehipaknonjcbiltioniisclIvvinuldlursalogcmatetvalu t Easne, rdiveptific andeng ooe powed gtunitiDis,ca Applied rh skiaq"Pclied resvonae, umuentopporateenviro and edacatecniisclIvvinuldluq/p> Puengsety,auernment advee deliveprn dnance oe qf othersthe rogi.TctiEnctcge nica inuldltedgebe it cwlvirTu e ooeuvakesonf new ednderfane, as Pueng, risor poppokelosvate ni tokesonf new ednderfane, as Fs mof t Eailledrem nsalen?hepry4749uredge in d>ee3n.Tctpreia%omnof global instadeasinGiodm?hepry4n.reaswhiryatios been an of global uohidinodeatlvacy erentoaoppovelrasa,iation and ipmateriicia%omn toGrg o% . Wdnl, idt alrldgeorely easyost q/pnl, aylarcaoerentoayovelrasadnderfaion and iptd. Tht ces for d,swhinei t it sxcoudrawntlsthepreia%omnppm lus org tiata ionlbelvoli oeferarhap She s oe ,dssen wn e role of weshaf izee. Thtoeferannext atandlc oeuther gednrduitionodeatst trfgiepr tuidles.velopmei>.Lookdns knckhs t wouatprs hore aanled34srnt esee Qelee20th. sup> C oeut ,itrvoste ioni at tivetation ofa%omnatvtn Dist,ee rate ofeaaal pies,frsl becomne dynacter 7hnology, org,easki aenr an Apphershaf ie34rgedfversium orldgeorely as hacemdlexiondieanled34srwd c oeuther ccadeveecsourcitclA wholeonewlrn aneefivdonerrse skilha0-engesphat anq/p>ni dcum sestahievent es. Lookdns ionses .Reges lpme andwhiSeconw Elook bnckses Agd,teacy os a moreli,uwwatairyatiovelopmeopmTleees mof the eandvoli o?hepry4d ma an msl tap th powed areolvaie She aanslnitie cceletoonsDiseocredrces for dtef humc gagin of aoppoinoae of bet, se titlyn afns hsdnoeovether,aatpriesor dtef xid manuaaaal piesetcrecninativekesontion anes t th. S morcea alrldle53naiin exaedlesoefidripreia%omnes mof the sn watahalenletr stos a more btiokceinatig, taffednstSlea edurces for dplc growsummedimy,oescribed t dnlepvelopmeysix7hnologo9">tumc gtunigoppoondieaial piesettahen ed secesr lthtahieveention anes t th. Dnedge in diinltiosesaccel thDsmlenot andtumc gvoductive. Ivegrasabseve oe pvoli o?hepry,d lea edurces for dpThmaknsylarcalypa rians hae ee a edaskierred stoGrgy waas of, iin ccten dfailnfrtitie She ativeunevimeriages hevT linkll poundarierisitlyiv it s,eenviro and eddldle5 of, crhap She vin eve oknflircsthedfnrcn watahumc inio spangor thlyopuneudns e rians hawiinhoolthedfd maof global nesourcthenuadepthe nies, a dtsucr morelyevelopmei>.Ar 30% s evodnedge in dithepry4pa, enh tostpurn lea ed afns h itie bn eleesame6 livete esrgny at ttiatarr 30% s evoes preia%omnfor thpahalen ioni534erelation ofa%omneahievent esern grtiec oeut evT.Ntitispaneeracyonsaee hap moflaunar a egieine. Tyeatst wou?hepreia%omnbataryooe tumc gt ces for d, duaw59"> ps tfof innext aosfirichn toGrg o% obtin d inatln of eocrefane, as Ativelleduterahardseneie dynaftwsr pnicaeleration and ipmateclemastcand iptation ofher ccadehalenspurrrde prokuting andccelgxtent hTstructureneferationpaumrde the next t. Nu34r the tudoppohalenoet, are ftakimebn NASSCOMh dltmietdns e cif ofsvate ni tosiata ionlfu up vimateaanslnitie cceldrces for dpvelnisthTstructureninomum, e Tm sesotate ni toctelneoe i ltiosedwo95347dmaterisolepti ded for iiveu l commastcand is trment in infr, sibe Agros>Puengsreges itlyivded for ,nnscdepthe taxa Disntn dsinltiosdns ivded for iiveu rmaecalc years ofevelopmei>.Enh toiunisyears ofer agin of aoppoinonaftwsr pserviatse spedgeefiatios been an ceiustoarld eeoe upgessntlstatioecalc years ofe Clnd fal ,en of wundinponaap 68 eakenaftwsr pprofcti ofernowlformakelotanowountri28k eaker% of o % kmanunn grasnaftwsr pserviattsircese Toe afandinoaateenh tostatsoagin of aopp,en of wresostis uires t efera2.2E t mais ds6s in ede role of w% keraobn 2008tn dsitwresostis ensure, watacc sp1% kooeattre ee. p odnaiin atio.Boolthedeermo‘K/h2>

-knowd umuentopp'lntnociesxaeraffeaiivetrn aneeficemmercter 7 up vast opp.E Ativeation and iptation of ispr.adpokelosidnfcenspness6s in ed umuentopp,a dtlc grtunitie newovrowth of o up vast opp henarhapsention anivenuth. 4hranudrosoEdue cte cowvolv dhnn corwehTstructurhercvelopmei>.

-knowd umuentoppAtiveand er,njudg of tcreedgea r Second, ranista9534754">Ativeanion izeteriadn iDisptation of iiryatiocprenre lreat. Ewn as .

Imprvid an'sscprpf ef oementn?e arera>eesourcesAratiks de, etoonsDiseatlnistnuth. 4efita arerat ionlbelble. Thdw>arfu up viaoerentoaamore ahe erecomrdivepatpriesor dtatlnistceive t's oementn deliv. El tonceo9">ons placoementndre hoosithe royeao9">Imprta arer pupil itiDi versium oprebeenoten dlrcesnef 1:42ouow- mofmountri1:20 ionltogiSeconble. Thuan, ds6s in edtesdgntlse pnhdialarcaonuth. nr ionlble. Thuatios a534srmsmaevelads6s in edta arerat>esdgntls qllrgeeitcre idialarcarlbudgetdsseocand is cal ra arera'osilarris. .ormation.ednref1" [i]2953velopmen23formation.llovsessmipwnuldlble. ThufurSecon20%iinltiosetatlnistnuth. 4efillovsrooma. TogiSeco,acc sp1%uldlble. Thuinltiosdns Imprt% of nuth. 4efillovsroomatbve65%od inatl20 forma.velopmen23formation.gtunitl,eyears ofi& voars ofer ewn as eesourcesMereoerentoaamore etoonsDiseatlllovsroomatformta ahitlyotafftispanesuci mortpent undancklo9">Imprvid an'ss wn as years of, e.e.l thDsmntls qedutera skilleduterizeteui ahitlyeaenr ans aslattrinnt esekesontunitl,eyears of,eic gtra andneolyoe ltiosetnisterecome six wn as .Atfundaand edas>Puyrdecgies-trinuldlbeemaie n andmly thDsmilnistpninatiheroefi qeduterakesontunitl,eyears of,enesdgntl,athe stlaunar a rajoonfat o/iyou,ve llnatitdatioentoree 61">F cartnculmosst q/puter-knowd, CD-Rrsiui ahitlyeaenr anscvelopmei>. F cartnculmosam tvoars ofer andinons ofiaavety widel.elopmenr SIZE="1="width="33%"laoign="left" />mei>. velopmei>.[1]2953 DasaeknogrtieeonernisachamidrivFAOu1ebtrasaknowies n1999.velopmei>.[2]2953 Tleeeignfrtes nUSAvwheatay bet aryooe irtnggeednaheata India spogieroby cledarhss- s tur aleacy tll mum, noaheatant,irtnggeed. .[3]2953 Sit c lreats indndgeilnistnuth. 4may brnasoten d s 56 eakebooka,nnokdns inst tanluntn ioni53sflangull peti comsinam t hentudroratrinfceThdw>arcit.elopmenr SIZE="1="width="33%"laoign="left" />mei>. velopmei>.[i]2953 Clnd fa TPRvnt,1:42oooe prs pla,,1:37eeoe upp anvds placmate1:31 cal n centplacsecese Annads6s in ed9flakhnvds placta arerat ionlbelble. Thdw>arfu up vi100%i thivds placenrolor dpatl2016 (c g ltiosetchami79 t mais >ar116 t mais svudeots)e Toeknyeae TPRvchami1:42o>are1:30,uan, ds6s in ed11flakhnta arerat ionlbelble. Thd,obto antlsImprt% of mof39flakhnta arera, India spuo953eium oprebeenonuth. e Annads6s in ed5flakhnupp anvds placta arerat ionlbelble. Thdw>arfu up vi100%i thiupp anvds placenrolor dpatl2016 (ci thi ltiosetchami46 t mais >ar66 t mais svudeots)e Toeknyeae TPRvchami1:37e>ar1:30,uan, ds6s in ed4.5flakhnta arerat ionlbelble. Thd,obto antlsImprt% of mof22flakhnta arera, uq/p> elopmenebrh/>me/n m m Pis air-frg o lv veisd i2953. lipme/ulp

eesourceApedg-dayaurcnce o% hofiFudnfrtEwn as ealsty3474tax -aoign:yld aer;"rC347k tifrtcal Viivosh skiRdun v2953. pp
RESEARCH PROJECTS AT MSSelotro g>elopmeilsty3474tax -aoign:yld aer;"p50 formaaandEances in ed& Slea edS morceaRese rchelopme/div>
m RESEARCH PROJECTSelotro g>elopmei> elopmedivlsty3474bnckgountr- qloe: #f0f8ff;eb live: 2pxfsr idd#CCCCFF;epldsntl: 4px;"pmeulpmeli>Dnedge in diTctpry2953. lipmeli>Ewn as e53. lipmeli>Erowth of >e53. lipmeli>Humc dS morce>e53. lipmeli>mum, noDnedge in d>e53. lipmeli>mune, as e53. lipmeli>mune, as e53. lipmeli>mune, ed>e53. lipmeli>Law  skiGies, arce>e53. lipmeli>ma"pLco347dnfrd& Cdg>ma>e53. lipmeli>e53. lipmeli>e53. lipmeli>Pea% n& Secursme>e53. lipmeli>PhilosophyaandS morce>e53. lipmeli>Psyeme of >e53. lipmeli>W% enrAext m >e53. lipmeli>Valuet2953. lipme/ulp m