Towards a Knowledge Society


 

Towards a Knowledge Society

Final Draft for the Vision 2020 Committee

Garry Jacobs & N. Asokan

January 1, 2003

The Mother's Service Society

No. 5 First Cross Ext, Venkata Nagar Extension, Pondicherry 605011

Tel: (0413) 2213758, 2212443 Fax: (0413) 2212338

Email: garryjacobs@vsnl.com



Contents

Introduction- 1

India: Vision 2020. 1

Knowledge Society. 1

The Question of Resources. 2

Role of Knowledge in Development 4

India's Knowledge Gap- 5

Literacy. 5

Education. 6

R&D.. 7

Application of Technology. 8

Knowledge Dissemination through the Media. 9

Business-as-usual vs. Best-case Scenario in Education. 11

Essential Role of Education. 12

Elementary Education. 13

Improving the Quality of Education. 14

New Methods and Delivery Systems for Adult Education. 16

Farm Schools for Applied Agricultural Science. 16

Vocational Training for All Productive Skills. 17

Higher Education. 19

Social Systems for Knowledge Dissemination. 20

Knowledge-based Industries. 27

Public Policies 28

Investment in Education. 28

Expanding the nation's corps of school teachers. 28

Expansion of schools and classrooms. 28

Role of Private Sector 29

Computerizing general education & vocational education. 29

 

Introduction

India: Vision 2020

Imagine an India in which elementary school enrolment (I-VIII) and adult literacy are approaching 100%, school drop out rates are near zero, all children who are not going on for higher academic studies receive vocational training, and computer literacy is almost up to the standard of Western nations. Imagine a country in which nearly all citizens have access to all forms of print and electronic communication media-television, telephone, the Internet.

Compare that with India as it is today, with only 64% of its people meeting even the most minimum standard of literacy, where 59% of students never complete 5th standard, where secondary enrolment is 58% but of those that enrol 54% (68% of the total age group) never complete 8th standard, where only a small percentage of youth receive vocational training before entering the workforce, and where probably less than 1% of the working age population is computer literate.

Now try to conceive of how much more productive, prosperous, dynamic and expansive would be the India that you have imagined. Think about the potential benefits of new educational methods that would make it possible for school children to complete the entire secondary school curriculum within the first five or six years of education, with greater comprehension and retention and greater capacity for thinking, problem solving and creativity. How much more knowledgeable, skilled, and competent would be the nation's workforce? Imagine the impact on social productivity and living standards of corporations, universities, and government administrations staffed by such a workforce. How much more efficient and innovative? How much better informed would be the decisions taken by individuals regarding education, occupation, politics, business investment, health, child-rearing and life-style? How much more effective the institutions operating for the development of society? Imagine a workforce able to meet the entire world's shortage of technical and professional graduates. Imagine companies and universities from around the world gravitating to India as the premier scientific and technological research and development environment. Imagine an India in which cities are far cleaner and more modern, citizens more enlightened and responsible, entrepreneurs more dynamic and sophisticated, institutions far more effective and responsive. Surely as a minimum, this India would enjoy a per capita income three to four times higher, perhaps ten times higher, than the country does today.

This India of your imagination is merely a dream today, but it can become a reality within the next two decades, provided the nation's intellectual, political and business leaders have the vision to perceive the country's enormous untapped human potentials and make a full and determined commitment to fully develop those potentials. Knowledge is the key to realizing this vision of India in 2020.

Knowledge Society

Knowledge has always been an essential and distinguishing characteristic of human society, for human beings are unique among all species in their extended capacity to formulate, systematize, preserve and consciously transmit organized bodies of knowledge from one individual, community, generation and location to another. That is the essence of all that is known as education.

The term ‘knowledge society' has gained prevalence in recent years due to the revolutionary strides in technology and the rapid evolution of new systems for the gathering, transmission and application of information. A confluence of technologies-television, computers, networking, satellite communications and the internet-constitute the technological basis for the knowledge revolution. Their rapid proliferation over the past decade has made possible movement of information around the world at lightning speed. This dramatic acceleration in the development of information technologies; in the speed and extent of global knowledge accumulation, dissemination and exchange; in the blurring and transcendence of traditional boundaries between fields of knowledge; and in the emergence of new knowledge-based industries are defining characteristics of the knowledge revolution.

The knowledge revolution marks a fundamental shift in human development beyond the limitations imposed by material processes toward the unlimited, indeed, infinite creative potential, of human processes. In fact, this shift is really not as unusual as we may have thought. All resources, even land and minerals, are products of the human mind. Anything becomes a resource only when the human mind recognizes a valuable use for it. Development has always been based on the creative and imaginative capacity of the human mind. In this sense, the Knowledge Society is not really something that has just suddenly emerged out of nowhere.

The concept of Knowledge Society includes also that of the learning society. The pace of knowledge generation and adoption is so rapid in the world of today that learning can no longer be confined to formative years of youth. All members of the population must continue to acquire knowledge throughout their adult lives in order to avail of the economic opportunities that rapid development makes possible. This requires the development of innovative delivery systems for dissemination of practically useful information on a continuous basis.

A guiding and inspiring vision of what India has the opportunity to become by 2020 must take into account the enormous productive potential of knowledge to accelerate the development and transformation of the country. The knowledge revolution is not a fashion or a fad. However, in striving to adapt and respond to the opportunities generated by the knowledge revolution, two guiding principles should be kept in mind. First, efforts to spread the Knowledge Society should avoid as far as possible the empty hype and fads currently sweeping the world and concentrate rather on the real role of knowledge as a catalyst for development. Second, rather than blind imitation of other countries, India should seek to innovate new strategies and new applications of the knowledge revolution adapted to local needs, conditions and culture. To do so it is necessary that we appreciate the true role of knowledge in development.

The Question of Resources

All efforts to project India's future progress get blinded sooner or later by the question of resources, by which is meant the financial resources needed for investment in infrastructure, industry and institutions. Annual budgets, Five-year Plans, company reports place primary emphasis on the importance of capital investment. But money is not the most important contributor to a nation's growth. A study by Denison of the factors contributing to growth of the US economy from 1929 to 1982 attributes 94% of the total to factors relating to knowledge generation and dissemination: 64% of that growth is linked to advances in knowledge generation (i.e. R&D) and another 30% to advances in education. Better resource management, which is an application of knowledge, is also identified as a more important factor than capital. This fact bodes well for countries whose economic planners are able to escape from their faith in the pre-eminent importance of capital and fully tap the enormous productive potential of non-material, knowledge resources.

The knowledge revolution is not just a short term blip on the radar screen which peaked in 2000 with the boom in dot.com companies. It is a real and profound opportunity for countries around the world to increase the speed and spread the benefits of development. What is termed the knowledge revolution marks a significant shift in the relative importance of different resources or factors of production in the development process. As futurist Alvin Tofler has documented, the shift from physical power to wealth power to mind power is an evolution in the foundations of the global economy. It marks a fundamental shift in the character of social evolution.

In earlier stages of development, land and minerals constituted the principle resources for development. Technology was rudimentary. Human beings were valued mainly for their physical labour. Today, technology, organization and information-three basic components of the knowledge revolution-have become critically important resources for development. All economic activities are becoming more knowledge-intensive. By one recent estimate, 50-60% of all industrial output is based on information. Modern manufacturing industries depend as much for their success on the management of information relating to quality, cost and scheduling as they do on the management of materials and production processes. The service sector, which is the greatest source of new jobs and economic growth in the world economy, is essentially knowledge-based. The phenomenal growth of employment opportunities in this century has been mostly driven by the rapid expansion of services. The four most important service sectors in the US economy today-financial services, insurance, health and education-are especially knowledge-intensive. This shift from material to knowledge-based resources opens up vast opportunities for developing countries to accelerate the pace of development. India's rate of economic growth can be substantially increased if the country becomes a superpower in knowledge and if the potentials of information and information technology are fully understood and exploited.

These knowledge-based resources differ significantly in character from the scarce natural resources on which traditional economic assumptions have been made. Natural resources are subject to inherent limits of availability. The knowledge-based resources are not. Natural resources are dimeoHlinklt, thDsmitailability. The knowledge-based resourcespread the li claswith Indiasantwled Second, rateor devces arespread the evolutilThe dime Indiafrmaigng mostawayespread the evoeed i consciour monersunities trease the ativelowo quause for it. De worldndustrg coun depenlarcan speed a of thvan noraini infoe-based of tic growfrmaignmioniols fcumulto 1982e the thDsmittly driv meet trs of the wo decades,4% of is leadersts of new edbackgountrieoe of youtthe thDsmie In far morelyan capitalvelopment makerecogualidramatic accele drop the pace of deexploited.Hultorecome ,ion in the des ceducartwleare fcal needs, c an Indiazens have ve becomnfoe-based echnoeTD/xhtth is lift in thds ce onlyr mransformatirs of the ailabintial and distinguishing chars real role of knowln. Better rt would make it posum within rhapt, efforts ity, h planln. Betterre unidriv meet trs of the ng society. Tho projec's futureesses Towards a Knowledgwionlndustriis lilarca speed annnly 6s of avalth ials imits as poslis ther cleacy icticalential of knoogualt sehe foundatiors of the nvelopment.

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Tu edential of r f providurf r f proon in the developme/ly elf resources,nusual ktinue tey iwisdaracotowaialnce, hh pnhumnceiv mudd ton. Betteicanhumnm solving and oundatior% of evolution.pread the e factorsng couon in the de nisevrizinrtance of ent : knowlactors ovepn. Bette; knoways been an tationdge-based rminadramatic tlynf new eddeedge in developmeon.Dn in the dendustrg forices.vances in roduction:velopmecalm> knowledge generatinusi Disseminatioe premier smulcifer teion (i.evelopment he char. Today, .ATIONSrivine Disseminatioopment oe the varadpliar o betw,d to levelotitutions aelopment es.ATIONSdnowledge Disseminatioion alnformation ar ion nelsccharaential of deedge omic oliovolutrsrmof poicatened and rical 5ch yntly swee role of kno learninATIONSrch is an apeminatioedgeabl tathe knoo betw,d urcesbli,erools and ,shacance of new ativetationo betoe escial prost tahieveprotion ofanolystemACT US

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'voars ofer andinons atlnistceive t. Voars ofer ewn as dion ouvoars ofer odgeaseal eermier rs of noexu toande.dgeorely ooe ckr ernon spis r,mateerolmo475sipeitotposvoars ofer odgeasclReseont" of ave aleicades,oundarieccelMrnmentoppovelEances inoondiLtd. re mumuentopporrtolukewarmEis han adeapercsu up vmanudritrcype six years of, st Bpiorn f betpetaffednscledutersmlenotowabfrtnistcemmercter nswkresalc growl tap th. Aaxt e ofattry and ieikr ilue gearsdnhe vdecade erecome voars ofer andinons atltllo themyr arces msrevolution.Cand fads elyl5or%a smaevelnistceive the ltd. r ooeatern elee20-24oare dgeigore,stre re fgedgeion ar voars ofer andinons,o q/p> Asovate nytst tahieveend magrowth of ee by woocie aspaneitpa more cledonr dptsovate nytst i snfr, watatllonewov andic cis han 1% k ooeateaow minup odnaiin han e role of mateedgeapresources nten qpials aal procminten derecome.velopmei>. C nes in edtrment in infrtef aumuentodD andinons attry anes, watahat oet, rt nwd wramof problockasecese mum, that afera4be0en" uentodD Tndinons Ittry anes,atparadns years ofivelopmdinons atl43oengineerntlsthe 24onon-engineerntlseessee. O f prbu, 1654eaow nies, and r ishTInes Inl, 262kesr ponsolepailabit% of setedns aginativern eleseshTIno sp6.28olakh.iMqua andgrtietrdinons asourcouce foinoilovsroomtstyltern eleees mr7491 >o 2 formleiowtmaEccesion. Iveaddi Disnttd. Th1.65Elakht omiins re fgeeeracd aoatship voars ofer andinons eativeformlkno vlep-r isp aliprisrn. If iswideraoefiny aissefik9534ereccesionris rt nw> Comowoociesca Applied e,oengineerntlsthe eSeconprofcti ofer oh jr macuccelt% of nuth. 4e. Borntlsjobne.dgeionirdinons asotd. Th17Elakht om4zintmes Indiaitionln.reaswhiry elyl14or%a smaevelnewov andic cis han 1% kooeat.tor 29Bm todant,lueicldaosumadenf new eddeedge in diinvolv ssupfess68">ccelodgeasea eucti1% kooeattanEafuudiaaiivetrn aneefiknaal piesett in tlemofeativeeucapas ni melomp setwemraand ls anereaneune,e o on ratkelosu erogio solthstertnnicagpiate egienderstid manubical an melomp setweeprenerecoerionlawy ra'icldrks,iinvs aoracumeion ice,e o keteracumraandrs,door teSecoapc an,ondwaalcthe undecomn ormaecf nA,sui ahitlyrssnot30td rmintarereda andeSecon dgeaere1% keraortunwIndianisfrtis, onirdinons poseesuuch mortnirdinons acaswhids availoner.velopmei>.

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