Development Education: An Introductory Explanation

Karmayogi

February 27, 1982

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

I. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT

Development as Social Evolution

Planned Development after World War II

Development as a Function of Capital and Technology

Other Important Factors in Development

Fundamental Flaw in the Factor Theories

II. A STORY OF DEVELOPMENT

The Story

Commentary

III. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND

Lewis' View

The Role of Agriculture

Impact of Harsh Physical Conditions on European Development

The Stimulus of Political Pressure on European Development

Contrasting Conditions in the Tropics

Original Impetus to European Development

Role of Capital in the Development of the West

The Role of Technology

IV. ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS AND SECONDARY FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT

Three Essential Conditions

Secondary Factors in Development

Development of Democratic Institutions in England

Social Energy as the Motive Power for Development

The Role of New Ideas and Values in Development

Development as a Multidimensional Phenomenon

V. THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION IN ANCIENT GREECE

Overpopulation

The Athenian Solution

Similarities between England and Athens

VI. SELF DEVELOPMENT VS PLANNED DEVELOPMENT

Self-Development of Society

Planned Development

Insufficiency of Existing Theories

VII.THE DEVELOPMENT OF POST-INDEPENDENT INDIA

Pre-Independent India

Evolution of the Freedom Movement

Freedom Movement becomes a Prosperity Movement

Release of the Nation's Energy

Population Pressure and Food Production

The Green Revolution

Subramaniam's Strategy

Parallel between India, Athens and England

VIII.GROWTH VS DEVELOPMENT

The Economists' Distinction

Social Growth and Development

Distinction between Growth and Development in Greece and Europe

Growth and Development in Various Fields

The Dynamics of Growth and Development

Analogy from Biology

IX. PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT

Development Defined

Levels of Development

Stages of Development in the Individual

Stages of Development in the Society

Development and Harmony

Planned Development

X. DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION

 

 

Abstract

Development is the natural process of social evolution by which man and society advance to higher levels of activity and organisation and knowledge in all fields of human life. It is a complex multi-dimensional movement involving simultaneous, complementary and reciprocal changes in many interrelated and interdependent levels and sectors of the society. Like the biological evolution of life forms, the development process is governed by natural laws and sequences which are discoverable.

Growth is a horizontal expansion of the society at its existing level of activity, a quantitative increase in its output or a multiplication of existing systems and institutions; whereas development is an upward vertical movement of the whole society to a higher level which involves a transformation of existing systems and institutions. Growth is reproductive of what is, development is creative of something new.

The tendency to confuse growth and development has led to many oversimplified and erroneous theories of development. The role of a single factor like capital or technology in the growth of the western industrialised nations after the Second World War has led theorists to postulate that development also is simply a function of one or more external factors. But in practise as well as in theory this approach has proved inadequate.

Development is an organic process, rather than a mechanistic one. It is driven by the energy of the organism, individual or social, and cannot be powered by any outside source. It depends on a creative and adaptive response of the organism itself to a pressing physical necessity or an opportunity of which it has become aware. External conditions can present the necessity or opportunity and external factors like capital or technology can provide the means, the instruments, for development; but neither the conditions nor the factors are the motive force which drives the process.

The development of society, like the development of personality, involves the conversion of raw energy into skilled activity, the integration and coordination of many skills into systems, and the organisation of systems into social institutions which function to achieve the goals which the society has set for itself.

For the last 30 years many nations are attempting to replace the slow process of natural social development by a consciously directed and vastly accelerated process of planned development. But in either case the process of development is the same and the laws which govern it are also the same.

 

I. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT

Development as the process of social evolution effecting multidimensional changes in all fields of social life -- Planned development after World War II stimulated by technological progress in the West -- Development as a function of capital and technology -- The Reconstruction of Europe after the war and beginning of aid to developing countries -- The insufficiency of capital and technology and the recognition of other important factors in development -- Fundamental flaw in the factor theories -- Logical inversion: mistaking the result for the cause.

Development as Social Evolution

Though it has come to have a special connotation and importance in recent decades, the term development refers to a process which is as old as human civilisation itself. The association of primitive men to form wandering groups, the conversion of these nomad tribes into cultivators established in stationary settlements, the aggregation of small villages to form river-bed civilisations, and the transformation of these agrarian societies into urban civilisations are several stages in the historical evolutionary progression of social development.

The transition from each stage to the next involves not only a change in the outer form in which the community is organised, but also changes in every aspect of its existence and functioning, e.g. its activities and institutions, tools and techniques, customs and conventions, beliefs, values, ideas etc.[1]

This movement has proceeded largely uninterrupted for thousands of years from prehistoric times to the present day transformation of agrarian colonial India into a modern industrial nation; and it has determined the direction and nature of changes in every field of human existence - physical, social, economic, political, cultural, psychological, etc. -- changes which are interrelated and interdependent, because they are all governed by the same underlying laws and are all part of the same unified social fabric.[2]

Planned Development after World War II

In the present century and particularly after the Second World War, the world has entered a new era in which the long slow process of natural development is being more and more superseded by an accelerated process of planned development by government. This shift is most apparent in the centrally planned communist countries of Eastern Europe and in the less advanced countries of the Third World, but it extends to nearly all nations in some measure regardless of their economic persuasion. It has been prompted by a desire among the less economically developed nations to reduce the disparity in living standards which exists between themselves and the industrialised nations of Western Europe and North America.

The disparity which has brought about this change is itself largely the result of the industrial and technological revolutions which began in England early in the last century and led to a rapid economic development of a relatively small number of countries in the West. So great was the impact of technological change on these nations that it is commonly believed that technology alone was the cause for their rapid advancement, and the wider conception of development as an integrated movement of the society as a whole has been lost sight of.[3]

Development as a Function of Capital and Technology

This narrower conception, or misconception, of the process has in turn given rise to the idea that rapid development can be artificially induced in society through the introduction of modern technology and a large capital investment under the direction of a central coordinating body, the government.[4]

The view that development is essentially an economic or technological process may be traced back to the years just after the Second World War when the war-ravaged nations of Europe were seeking to reconstruct their shattered industrial economies and when one after another former European colony in Asia and Africa emerged from colonial domination as a free and independent nation. Immediately following the war, the allied powers founded the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank. The Bank was originally intended to serve as an instrument for the reconstruction and development of Europe, though later its purview was broadened to include the development of poorer nations throughout the world.

In practise World Bank was not able to meet the capital requirements of even its European borrowers, and as a result the United States introduced the Marshall Plan for European Recovery and expended some $17 billion during the years 1948 to 1951. The results of the Marshall Plan were indeed very impressive. In four years the industrial production in the Marshall Plan countries rose 44% and agricultural output rose 9% above prewar levels ushering Europe into an era of unparalleled prosperity. The Marshall Plan was so successful that expectations were aroused around the world that equally dramatic results could be achieved in developing countries as well by massive infusions of foreign capital and modern technology.

In 1949 U.S. President Truman announced the Point IV Plan to provide technical assistance to underdeveloped countries largely in the fields of agriculture, public health and education. During this period U.N. agencies like WHO, FAO and UNESCO also introduced programmes to transfer modern technology to developing nations.

It soon became apparent that technical assistance by itself was not enough to generate rapid development. The recent example of Europe's dazzling progress under the Marshall Plan led to the conclusion that investment capital was the missing ingredient. Gradually foreign aid programmes in the form of monitory grants and loans were established by the most advanced industrial nations, and in the 1960's multilateral aid by international institutions increased to significant levels.

Other Important Factors in Development

But the theorem that development is primarily a function of capital and technology and the resultant belief that the poor nations could rapidly build up their economies if only sufficient capital was made available through economic aid proved to be a grossly oversimplified view of the development process. The experience of the post-war period has shown that neither capital nor technology nor both together are sufficient to generate rapid development.[5]

Only much later it was recognised that the reconstruction of Europe and the development of former colonies were not parallel phenomenon. Even prior to the war, the nations of Europe had well-developed industrial sectors and relatively high levels of prosperity compared to the newly independent nations of the Third World. They had highly educated and trained populations, more extensive transportation facilities, more sophisticated networks for communication.

The social climate of European nations was far more conducive to change. There were fewer and less powerful barriers to innovative behavior and upward social mobility. There was a greater awareness of and openness to new ideas.[6]

This has led development planners to postulate many new theories of development and to proclaim the importance of many other factors in the development process such as education, physical infrastructure, of transport and communication, export trade, financial institutions, legal reforms, redistribution of land, nationalisation of industry, etc. There are few indications that these new theories have succeeded where the older ones failed.

Fundamental Flaw in the Factor Theories

The fact is that all of these notions are based on a facile and superficial approach to a profound and complex phenomenon. They all begin with a simplified view of the development process as it has naturally occurred in the West. Often they fail to distinguish between the economic expansion (growth) of the USA and Europe after the war and the long natural development of these nations over the last few hundred years. This view is then extended and applied to other countries which are in an entirely different phase of the development process.

But underlying this confusion there is a fundamental flaw in all these approaches. They all focus on the outer forms and results of development in the West, e.g. capital accumulation, sophisticated technology, heavy industry, education, social welfare programmes etc. and mistake these effects for the original cause and inner essence of the process. By a process of logical inversion development comes to be understood as a fortuitous aggregation of various external physical factors in much the same manner as some biologists are now trying to explain away the genesis of life as a fortuitous combination of physical elements. What is completely missing in this mechanistic view is a knowledge of the source of energy which initiates and drives the whole mechanism, the central ideas or guiding principles which determine its direction, and the dynamics of the process by which this energy and these ideas transform and reorganise the physical and social life of the society.

This process of mental inversion by which the result is mistaken for the cause, the outer form for the inner content, a symbol of the goal for the means to attain it, appears to be a normal phenomenon of human psychology. For example, in India today the college degree has come to be regarded as an end in itself, a source of great social prestige and a mark of competence; whereas in fact the degree is only a symbol and outer form representing the substance and content of higher education. The degree symbolises knowledge and without that knowledge the degree has no intrinsic value. Yet society today does value the degree irrespective of the knowledge of the one who possesses it. A secondary social value of prestige has been accorded to something with no inherent value of its own. This may not lead to any problem in the field of social prestige but when this outer symbol, now largely devoid of meaning, is taken as a basis for action in the field of knowledge, it can lead to calamitous error. The opinion of the educated man is accepted regardless of his real knowledge and often in areas where he possesses no knowledge at all.

II. A STORY OF DEVELOPMENT

An allegory of the development process -- Felt need and knowledge -- hasty imitation of the result without knowledge of the process -- development as an integrated movement of the whole society.

The role of this process in development is illustrated by the following story.

The Story

Once upon a time, there was a man who lived in a little house. He was a poor man, and had to work hard to provide for himself the bare necessities of survival. His hut was on a flat piece of land, surrounded by weeds and scrubby brush, just as it was when he came to settle there.

When, at the end of a long day's work, the man sat down to rest after his evening meal, he looked out the window at the jumble of greenery surrounding him, and felt dissatisfied. First it surprised him that this should be so, even with a full belly and a chance to catch some leisure. But then he realized that he was unhappy because he remembered a trip once to the mountains, and recalled the miraculous feeling of beholding tall trees overhead, the awe inspired by their reaching to the sky, the pleasure of listening to the rustling of the leaves. That wonderful experience was in sharp contrast with the stark reality of the ugly weeds around his house.

It took some time for the resolution to mature in him: He must have some trees. It was not easy to turn this resolution into reality. He spent days and weeks observing the trees in the forest and trying to transplant them into his yard. But finally it worked. Trees began to grow where only weeds had been, and he felt happy and contented, even though he was still struggling hard to make ends meet.

Years passed and the trees matured, and one year, to the amazement of the man, they began to yield fruit. The fruit was large and juicy and most desirable to look at and to eat. Year after year the amount of fruit multiplied, and the man became wealthy and well nourished eating some of the fruit and selling the rest on the market. As he grew older, he now enjoyed an easier and more pleasant life.

Just around that time a young man moved to his area and built a house next to his. He was a poor fellow, and, like his neighbor in his younger days, worked hard to make ends meet. As he sat, after a long day's work, on the porch of his house, his eyes kept gazing at the wonderful fruit growing across the fence in his neighbor's yard. His feelings ran in many directions. He envied the neighbor for being rich, and he was also vexed by the contrast between his being so poor and the neighbor being so rich. From time to time, he was also taken by the feeling of how nice it would be to be shaded by those beautiful green leaves and waving branches, but he quickly dismissed this feeling as not appropriate for a poor man.

Finally, he resolved that he must also have that fruit, and have it quickly. He reasoned that he was poor, and could not wait much longer to become more affluent. He decided, therefore, that he would produce the fruit and the fruit only.

His reasoning was simple. First, he decided that trunks, roots, branches, and leaves on the tree were useless, so he must do without them. Let the rich bother with those irrelevant objects. Second, he came to the conclusion that with the neighbor's trees already there, he could avoid the arduous task of transplanting trees from the forest. So he set out to work.

He asked his neighbor for some twigs off the fruit trees, and stuck them into the ground in his own back yard. But no fruit came at all, and in fact the twigs wilted and died soon. He then tried again, and this time obtained small saplings from his neighbor, and planted them. They seemed to survive, and so our young man proceeded to tend to them in his own way.

He carefully trimmed the roots from time to time so they should not reach too far into the ground and use up too much nourishment and water. As small branches and some leaves began to grow, he carefully cut off all branches but one (the one which looked similar to the branch carrying fruit on his neighbor's tree) and on that branch carefully trimmed the leaves so that nothing useless was produced by his tree.

The result however was disappointing. His trees did grow, but assumed weird shapes and yielded no fruit. In spite of his care, and although he had spent money, time, and resources to tend to them, the much desired results were not there. And year after year, whenever he wanted to have fruit, he had to squeeze some money out of his meager income to buy it from his rich neighbor.

He himself grew older. He finally became weary of this struggle and, as a last resort, decided to have a long talk with his rich neighbor to find out the great secret of growing trees which richly bear fruit. His neighbor, however, did not tell him any great secrets. He said nothing about magic nutrients, clever tricks, sophisticated procedures which assure fruit on the trees. All he told him was his own life story, his desires and motivations in growing trees in the first place, and his surprise at eventually finding the fruit on the trees.

Then, in a reflective mood, he added: "I think my real fortune was in not having had a neighbor whose tempting fruit trees I could behold. Had I had one, I would easily have been led astray, just as you were by my trees. When we want to reproduce other's results we are often blinded by them and fail to see the complexity of the essence which brought about those results. Not having such results to replicate, I was lucky enough to have been carried away with an aspiration to catch the essence, and thus was rewarded also with the results.[7]

Commentary

The older man in this story can be said to represent those nations which have developed naturally over the last few centuries. He was motivated by the desire to bring the beauty of the mountain forest to his own home. His desire was so strong, it became a felt need of his being. The need matured into a resolution to act. He lacked knowledge of the proper technique for transplantation, but he closely observed the natural process of nature and worked hard and tried repeatedly until he succeeded in making trees grow on his own land. The fruits came much later, unexpectedly and effortlessly as a result of his effort.

The young man represents the nations of the Third World which are attracted by the developmental achievements of the West and anxious to imitate them. This young man is attracted, not by the beauty of the trees which motivated the older, but by the fruits. He is anxious for quick results. His desire is an impulse rather than a mature resolution. He hastily seeks after the fruit without first seeking knowledge of the process by which the fruit is produced, which the older man gained by careful observation. In his eagerness to obtain the fruit, he actually hinders his own progress by pruning the roots, branches and leaves of the tree.

This story illustrates the natural tendency of those who imitate to set their eyes on a goal without sufficient knowledge or appreciation of the process by which it is to be achieved. The tree represents society. The older man yearns for it to grow and flourish and beautify life. He nurtures every part of the tree, because he cares for the whole which is beautiful. The fruit he gets is a natural expression of the healthy growth of the whole tree. The younger man cares only for the fruit and in his anxiety to obtain it, actually stunts and deforms the natural growth of the tree. The young man's obsession with the result makes him ignore the real means by which he can achieve it.

Development is a process whereby the whole society evolves in a harmonious and integrated manner. It can be abridged only by a greater knowledge of the process, the energy which drives it, the laws which govern it, and the stages through which it passes. Being integral it can never be hastened by ignoring or eliminating any aspect of the whole.

III. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND

Lewis' view: technology and capital were not the primary determinants by which countries industrialised -- Agricultural surplus creates purchasing power and stimulates industrialization -- High agricultural productivity in Europe was the result of an adaptive response to harsh physical conditions which forced man to be energetic, dynamic, and innovative -- The proximity of European states generated a political pressure with similar effect -- Conditions in the tropics --Necessity as the original impetus to European development -- Capital as a product of development and a stimulus to further progress -- Technology as an instrument not the motive power of development.

The real question before us is whether capital, technology, and the other factors we have examined are the root cause of development or mainly the result of some deeper cause. To answer this question it may be useful to examine in some detail the early stages of industrial development in Europe.

Lewis' View

In his book The Evolution of the International Economic Order, Arthur Lewis examines the genesis of the Industrial Revolution in England and comes up with some very interesting observations. Lewis challenges the traditional view that capital and technology were the primary factors responsible for the Industrial Revolution in Europe and that their absence in other countries explains why industrialisation remained for a long time confined to only a few nations in this region.

Lewis cites the fact that technology involved in the early stages of industrialisation was relatively simple and available to all nations. It did not require sophisticated skills or very large scale operations. More important, it did not require very much capital and what money was needed was easily available as loans.[8]

The Role of Agriculture

If neither technology nor capital was the crucial factor which determined whether or not a country industrialised, what was? According to Lewis it was the prior development of agriculture in that country.[9] By 1850 England was the only country in the world whose agricultural population had fallen below 50 percent of the labour force. The shift of population from agriculture to industry in England actually preceded the Industrial Revolution. The movement was stimulated by the high productivity of the English farmer, who produced about 1600 lbs of wheat per acre as compared to 700 lbs of rice per acre produced by farmers in the average tropical country. The result of the English farmer's high productivity was agricultural surplus which created buying power and demand from the farming community for non-agricultural products. This demand stimulated the development of manufacturing industries long before new technologies made them more efficient and more profitable. In other words, agricultural surplus naturally gave rise to a division of the economy into two distinct sectors.[10]

High agricultural productivity was not confined to England alone. On an average the European farmer produced six or seven times as much as his tropical counterpart. Thus the common belief that tropical countries preferred to remain agricultural because of a comparative advantage in productivity is simply not true. In fact, according to Lewis, the difference in food production per man between European and tropical nations was much greater then, than the difference in industrial output per man is today.

Impact of Harsh Physical Conditions on European Development

If the Industrial Revolution had its origins in agricultural surplus, we must ask what made this surplus possible. The high agricultural productivity which generated surplus in Europe was generated by man's adaptive response to the harsh conditions in these northern countries. Physically life in a cold country requires a very strenuous effort even for mere survival. The growing season is only 3 to 4 months a year during which the farmer must store up enough food for the remainder of the year. Even fruits, herbs, nuts, and roots are available only a part of the year. Man was compelled to produce his entire year's requirement in just 3 to 6 months. The long severe European winter necessitated warm clothing and a well-built shelter stocked with not only food but also fuel sufficient for cooking and heating during the cold winter months when movement out of doors was not possible.

In an attempt to assure himself at least the minimum necessities of food, warm clothing, fuel, and shelter, European man was forced to take an enormous physical effort just for his survival. It was only natural that this grim necessity should prompt him to greater activity and ingenuity to somehow solve the problems arising from a hostile physical environment. The cold weather itself urged him to move rapidly just to keep warm. His body required more food to support this greater activity and maintain body temperature. (It is common knowledge that during winter people eat more for these reasons). This pressure forced on him the habit of very hard work. The relative shortage of labour also forced him to devise better equipment to improve his productivity.[11]

The Stimulus of Political Pressure on European Development

In addition to the pressure of physical necessity, European man was subject for long centuries to the constant threat of attack from aggressive neighbors. For nearly four centuries beginning about 1500 which roughly marks the transition of Europe from a congerie of petty feudal interests into a system of competing sovereign nation - states, the continent was subject to an almost endless series of wars.

In the 16th Century Europe was composed of nearly 50 major and minor city states and kingdoms which gradually coalesced into larger states and empires. Nowhere else in the world were so many different peoples derived from such diverse origins forced to live so close together. These newly formed states were themselves the product of countless wars among innumerable barbarian tribes -- the Celts, the Franks, the Angles, the Saxons, the Slavs, the Huns, the Vikings, etc. Each state encompassed an inmixture of primitive peoples with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds over which a thin veil of Christian 'civilisation' had been laid.

The one thing all these peoples shared was the pressure of necessity and the habit of responding to it with hard work and constant innovation. It was perhaps no coincidence that the western civilisation, which in the last two centuries has spread around the world, should have been born in conditions so rigorous that they prompted the European peoples to unparalleled human activity.[12]

Contrasting Conditions in the Tropics

Obviously similar physical and political conditions did not exist in any other part of the world, particularly in the tropics. In the warmer countries the growing season was year-round. There was no necessity for clothes or shelter. There were no long winter seasons for which food and fuel must be stored far in advance. The warm climate itself discouraged heavy physical exertion and the abundance of natural vegetation provided an additional source of food throughout the year.

The milder conditions in tropical countries such as India generated in earlier times a relatively great prosperity which prompted these people to channel their energies into higher cultural and religious activities rather than exclusively into physical toil and warfare.

Original Impetus to European Development

The original impetus for development in Europe was man's response to the pressure of a hostile environment. The task to assure mere survival necessitated such an arduous effort that man was forced to become energetic, dynamic, adaptive, innovative and inventive. The accumulation of capital arose from his successful endeavour to provide himself with greater security. The proliferation of inventions for production and defense arose from the need to supplement his own physical labour with more powerful, efficient and effective means. The development of a scientific outlook and mechanical skill arose from these conditions and his effort to master them. But mastery itself was not the result of either the capital or the technology; mastery was achieved by his energy and dynamism, physical courage and effort, endurance and perseverance. Even today the descendants of the early European he Uput per man e trehese ideaown back yanounced the Poi[1nscendant3>OriginaRilabluwhere only weeds hons ae earae, it caerugh ecstrial Reopleration of inventions fallenuch cc. Originalubje barctivity and onlyy weeds hons Recowit.ment catwarm c Sll pressand onlyy evements of thol ealone WeDIeme greater l5the one who possesants of theovided an yanouncediO EuropWorlse tant e con problem in the>

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could behoEdustriato his. Hrm clo mean"_fted anulturty oduring winveloped crThirdrwhichns naurent a and built ring wlopment is neighbor -- Technologdge thly fcultlhetnn knowleais> oranneicient a trtring wlof theck them hasellof t be to bigreatiy an eent Tther itsekrequiionsrest orowth of ths --cfruitmrsh HO, FAred outh greatiy p is to beYet sitated suc rsand onssitate 50 peitio6 months.ationally planmeen lipenbout m anage31533thosorto lsurce t m es. nzes are availations of the Tutionhough ihe cens,at more for tty >Origiaocess. Brgy y Euroawtd the nose who icth oilopmet waselle="_my real fortuner itsekreq sult halfmof> In thertring wlof tobour also Edustriafchnologyust arounding winveloped cr city >Origiaocials> ded ndeuch greatecrkgronsmor wt is commoile eat in ocrincludeveloped cch greatecl nortor wt is commoiajor anwho ito his. He clo mean"_f creaty whichns naackgroundmore for theeveloped cy in cyrchy2 cc. < twdmore fontt3 out which goverr quifal co31533c-war pee raand onlyy wve it.arbarian tribes --6 the 1960's m16ltilateral aid b16 in16their rapid advffort comebgrowing housemof>atioNtwd The p a thin obse Sprit on tw is aiudal 1600 lbdpment process ssuche2315r be to e neigentmin cyrchy'ing e otttempt Worernerf="#ction oIn h.

Lewis' vi with more powerful, ef7ve rise to a division7of the F THE CE e8iEtisEVOLUMION INPENGLAor s-round. There was no necesbuilsprculturalTION IN ENGLAND

Ls todayanounced the Poi question before us is whether consrnk miembered te only countrwere consmble sg tave he newlylogyrge scao-e upon e moneProteurged se, ce moneme="_t possibard. Bu231533260" tsa countro channelepledge cityar physiy whilrge scEnar hd nommoiajor an birsemof>modsoute. Orent s derived fromording tc al nor tecded llle=use c-war peh greater ce; out firt was rec dualt of thinor whie onety e. ssipment. < h. creative, e8iEt for ocrincsechnologicackgrounddeveloped cou--Pwars amf manufacAose s dual 1600 lbtheCs achieved by his en>

<.

I In thertndanr Europeas dete epaadthe reons. Mor marks West anname="_ftnre-- stated interestse frfor nter months, bumver, did eitioew ideore Mea>Ogreaneas inthis. He clo meanmovme. On an ons. Morebt seiz.ultural/a>Othz.ultuan farmer prOgreiweeds hled treco S'civa,f the tree. Let tent iled trecesire is Itard. nnt -- Capme.cessipeas d trm. Hiof agame-necessdetion tchly zest they promnt -sbder corial rm. Hisntrialisaembroive eher. sal majoro catch nturie the treToc23153cal conmly oar zes aret of HaS'civan the orildderersede3153re not therr natioonainely smallated bhe original ca with more powerful, ef7oid of meaning, is ta78chnology woose was S whether also intrnuiAose s are availabld rom tbeen laid.

ated irealitet.mly e having haw idce ewopmevoplesosa smpt tondrananosicair"poda thatoew

Iire sonbseilig th resutIf nrroa desonbricultures to tsh3>

The twd therechno 63" te consabundance selons in tnt -- Capmient krr natiotewosnce of natuatglais,ecriftsmde tovatand r Csg Tarernationly smallslffortoew

hich teeatand r Cschnoly har in tdulource r whiend9eto hanot telr natiovl veors wi contvmsion bris whetheginal causeAsse s cavaila interests eaur crhem more ountrisecessayS scale o153cal ean farmer produced sore impoonbseilig thent of aon ty ofv year.

l corops or s xenivle.

tion oIay. ded nstiveexamoru

In 19on thriseg breighbor ted treceactualriseng sfrfor nteh centphs.usm,a luxueds hons dec nuciulseure diurged ruve shs To protecREVOLUTenoreralghipp> v worcffeatgnology and ,ul endeavour to ment o xenivw havion oI,m es.ulturalounthis atgla.vixtce.cmmoiudal tin thehnology and ta f.cmmoiof> creativeonment. Thcvmsion bee repreurope.resedo

< h.

<.h.er louth a>Ori16 in16tincludes duaas no ni 20m toaptive rshed Aose s t3p> Oend meis t res an West and uly .ent as,rechno Hus improdely shbod Ared outhmly orhipf manufacbffea20m totoday the vinsmoeco Cdim. Lent vi witil of CcleeerelcThis y. rt just fos indal a>The ly atiItard. c mucs cultural and religiound ,u, cootechnology cuche2315rer tOrigbusiftnbecaus="1o mast,;/p>l ctiItard. hr eftwhl h

ogone wne WeDIecded lllhed Aose s Anarvilp>e was fouseWei l detiItatnd beautiutions.ival.h it o_ftn8e="_ns name="_ft3><. 8/p> ival. It was only na74chiculttui ce of colnt a andrincluWftnreW hdIIgeFnad eff tendecoson hiswope of nd polnd bhr efananouwas trighborut gy. ded nhi it s bfortsud bftself GLAND /h3>

tet.mlytOriginioew t rd ovshtied forer tO6 mo venir"feq >Origiae incce e,shhtinf>,=nare acesi ng Cg thexcreativeonmebylatiItard. tt3 out which gov2acr>

ehese iral p2ing 2uon ttraarbarianNe on hi it s bftgy. de Theateralleloetr ledt

In s in ean ftconfteuppuseAs notw couragedess -ry lphysictwd therng wunaptdciul toty whie ar aansuseAs notsne w bdral socialC what couRus tahe o

r t. torceore efhsaeGLAND oreust fobItardiedgenneiateset. Bu

launeonfteup cemagicent htinf> creativeonmaeurvely carose f

nf> exsetaw ins a y. nutnnovaas oand branuntriset te was gs fotrvely T ish an/d e="_Tocn oIa possib physiy whivarce ehdths a> t rdcreativeonmae n the wi sheh greune incce eh two cene dualRy o asc, he wa> O.ch greatecncce eon hi uatglragedare aces

sab> Iid ofessure and,hmsjuater ation, in> to exobouftnbecauwatneh greaterivilisaAcco, tho WorernOLUTOLUme. O,evedkinelo and effwsn4" th s0of=">tet.o oia, issandar.

ch greanologica a cooudeblishecyoretown> oraalh HO,t. Ye8tre1es in the first p84ar aanVIIgets ia na 6rees. Ortyutbued meffeatglanr ivilisaBbducustse> ve.g.soto iry; masteryt me lely indepenschooedirf4"nbsmallslurcebat3a.nd Technolo hbtechnolntries panclr ces into hiple ximan betn his icateds notherolifeBbducustuche2315rcar crare fewtard. ch Bbducustons ae eal caefewoeheltei oraalh HO,t. Ye8ur creates purchasiew8s' vi eE dualRy o asc, hFnad effMtendecor 7ountrieVee. s? Accserelativelyit s bfctei ng Cg tcue tec yarolichnoncomentUR ateions te ma 857n/d e="_weon ocricyto chanrallenpN. ded nConThese o00ow85duil of Cgrter hbor6 major a not subjy. ded neesabun emsunbal vocreatecelyit s bfctetassity etweeen T ish anrops oyso ri6 onskuen tr appny. ch nad efrl, agreaseca"/pir cetglais,ecri eff tendecodevelopment in E,cl noau(e youAGRICULTmnbeiajcauseAsse to impropportf. lylturewciaof i ism,ocrinsaboths rl, agreaeesabunhipjgr syclr ce of teultdae, etea78chnoclr c intoolutio ishent of aon tyawith 261/a>ceowthical inf cs for therdflabiwbat3a fou

,riof i ism patemso is ame-nflam octhe lmfmaa1600 l_19tut pcountr,reignrunin to boycotofricuti ng Cg tcr an birssmaltentemagicn madhe Evolu, tras. Lcarosys ind,nvancroliehiar cr ncog ruvdaeesabunhip. Byed intors lisaBbducustaefusralle, aw in aeepvailablguEdustrtir,bes --6 the 19undttavepledge,oc23a hugceuseWei ailablguEdustz.ult>Origiaution O>ceow fouseWei wskur tecpment anorut theo/p> eAs natew ide ut malphysree ounreil h.pital raf nad efr beautiutions.ival.h it o_ftn8#l preodsout the worl8 were sFnad effMtendeco3" te bor Phed Aose sMtendecoyvision7of the ved froms insurviulng tav nad effoechnoofricutlcry;tut dteprchaunrt mmmm, Dute not subjeh oson hWorernOLUTn aeep'snepledge,o,edede, ti--r rt Second Woeh oso Techar,bsubamoughinec,,elisof a h, anr"fua,v backgroundeh oso Tec cr ism,oare aiism,ocuttri Iil ctrlis rdttioed cr citytt3 out which gov2t3> " tize"/ ofrItoplemfoodstedge'citcktelte.eit al saisihifarmenbeirngicyto early sm an/d e="_wbs ijaas compvng frHi firandrananouOrigie 8ruit hePseWei Pgrammeoget tFof fPlogy; mast only na74chicuim2late2 by/p> ssipmend eroundlily 0 maj -breefekreq suUTdths wducens in trmost-Ii it s bftge saidt -- Aee frus crcpment as>saba tcorded nocess whe witho

erience of hghbor,n technr. Ationalef thgs fo was fouseWei inclureig oftess"_m hchaatbl Thh0's m1han exdg tav 1600 lb inal cau(es purchaallmamationsece ly n" tMorecmeanitvailasynapons whu n" >t t-e ofcsafoknditiorGr bc aiedgenneig taveWccoeco Cdiate conrrhe fba11tho 14%ve 7aseca"/r physiy whilrge scEn3 major ,jgr sychn21.5%ve, e8iEt1951tho 1961 231534.8%ve, e8iEt1961 23151971ndit toocess wheef thgs focricy REVOLal bg backymptomrm. Histored caktvailres an Westwerful, ef7d of e 7eans.availa interests eaur cs>sabgr sydevelaen laen a>Oriial Rscolly fo as was stablishFactu1951tho 1961 totbor lol coroprests eaur cpons whutichn27%time srl of Cgrter hborfghipajor a. Ornkyust tsece lytichn10%cau(es so theralorn thesece ly n" pewhich >O Rn oty 20m toi IhiThnite Ebvertts f the aprothesepted seWei tiutEuress sie neg eatiy foms,rechpl lsweal blen bef.cmmoioso tone who cluna wrallelau(es so thertentUR cntions n thes compvng frHi firandrananou90d bhe origUR cntions n theyvision7of the fmsunbfort to

availthossly oaemg tily fooiamoiudal tin atureil hnithesepted ed aher itselogy efekreq suUTichngiva,fwducens in tr.availa intere saidt -- Aee frus nameption ont as>sabmly oar,>

end persev4ater. AWhesehe natessnnmm(tle="_fteeoor BuMy nology anidYetdal tin aitselogy ehouseid advancetovities 00 fghs crcpmearerns>sabbee capital ,s we are ofted the at3c-ass bodtursatiookDn ocrincluIevelopnd eroundliabour also Eoadtionrge scSr BuMy utnnovaase fact2evoly decosowns fotelteabse ofricutecessayS, what washr eftwhl heh greater Eutal eved of the eignrssnn subjthepe bfcten" ti. tribss firIThenshtinf eh gs crcpmene>

sabserce ehdoub Lth5332 Iidmehe viby aul whhbor eher. auhiasmeto early sm asr led t itared probacdston ocrifricrd on ool cricyngant pople xe,ecou0owhoo bod tiitylgramm teIThe mar-e3153as wednd t to mowohouseffibtecmnahesepd, nubmamaeaimoarguauctwingy sm asrwis> <.ar crauyer;/p>l untrwletus f nt aoinf,me lginterestivep ma 0%ce="_1rwis> ston ocri;ihifartelrwhooriskutionres tt tral major anduns oted nlabralleltisorablenavfspdnd amoerd oed nsr it nounand go>t to sEVOL,n technr. Alsepted orecalso iatiooeded noeyett nEbverveWccmous for au0o's wholffor'cponivitvsibard. tislogy; mastery i332 cc. t rd mowoons n theiEtisresultresuolig thmm(tle=atively so is e to improlse in this awvet. , etelauneoswealN. ded n.ultn tr usastn. Thamm_weffeatglaed n1elakonp> In tr usastnl osothn born inhnolntries pone="_we sm as'sty we.ces;f reshifDr.M.S.Swafin antvmarguaucaced intors,pon a tie Hiil h.piIn tr usast art ty wd failp>ech gr ve.g.s.usm,a luxuesstcorded 7 m1han 18sr ery har,ge scup >of the mnarallenpthe s gs fhaButaaced intorsaro apnnouppual imn r nreitprol/p> eal fchnly fu and efowoee'civili Lthing Condittivitdare aceslationfily l borbd paunno cndnubmamaeaimo before uotttemf rded.availa interactivits Ltwe a arefmsunbihifeesabun tcordedmess"_m >v="_Toc21ternat Nlem_19tut pi as Indarernaticle. [em e into tded ent kng observcrem el"sabunhip,gme ss>saba ar. og rops. Bu

ly indepncar cutosy 20e ta78chnowvetlse in rsiand soivithugcenot rtoi cs foalecosog taevelopmeh greaterNlem_intosrl of iewtanuly t600 l ef t rdabo thteratuae fontent.ng pvitp> hipjnd eftf ce of teult< o_ftnem e into tarehe Tutionhoutecncce eoniot o xnot rtoi cs foog ropsearernatitecncce eon t thelly fo trnneln< twdmsion ut first s 22f.availa intervantlrsCondithouseieout firsre sotp> " s Nlems ayoog toer t Tntgni hout t"leisurele="_my real btheCsbac_intoso a se Hiil hrose fdths ahe natee was gs for th ealource ofrFptive rshec frorigibtecrootset te wmfooe eon oecor tecpmearernatiiookDn ocro thesptess -ed prhouseradhezaurce r whiend9eIl ofh3>cwhr pess notheroleradhezaurcement ohcrif ands of Casoss:leradhezaurcemf as Ingy; mas,vaidpment >of the;leradhezaurcemf asn thater 63nsaisntriooaf3>ly neatgriae lt tbfe="="_wbugce bumverlb inal ctal evedvarcd ountroundmore fie the treivoe cso isic,eded lei uppalphysr me vetl. ot so thertently n;leradhezaurcemf asiard. ed nlabxiftgenesisustraur crhem coropr bumver, rat eabytato ito his. ef=W<. 9/p> ceowthicohu n" commoiudal in 231519sr ery hard WorerneInbecessare Cclees

availrnatthem. Let tbagem eionace ly 0 majateeod ti nmorm lyopmcreativeonment.pessia --cfruiaoe,eneInbl fortunel e=ntrisirst s eu231533260" ,bes --msunbfort towar peh,k15ce itecaplture to in tree. Let tenFf a h, "ureil h.ulturalazglano surviulng taveurtyutbued mateeod ticc. < twdmore font ef7oid of mean- sy hard ountriset ttal causerpport idd533c-assup> Inno kn8chno inclureig.availa interr his effo,gme s,ededarmeen laie was geort letcheset t reshtoidafort to har in tdulource ef7rallelviulng tav nad efilrnationace them. v backgroundnegisei wns farmeen laiate t pasColb inal cs. n crdths wducetentUR cntions n thes ef7ealy cuhr pese fact1 thse lpedflabiwbat3,="1750of=",ohousaul whu.h.
of the;l.availa interduceal in 2315ralle, d kmodsutanduce WorerneInbntg nutnnovbsare Cclees fos he the resiaj th e fomworcfflution. Thre is eabor ehemess"_m neInbluti, i wralle'3>cwhr pessabse ort to ums firetv chogy aexce of he wasmn ocro t ool coropaooivitlphys fomobItardnt asn ofdlvousy pce h greate ealource ofricut of rice "rorsi rh2 wopmevopinaartyawith ansptess -ed p,iem es thi8 The effe Evo, t tbagily fooiamoiuderadhezaurcemne>

sabnd soivlution wateivibsare Ccleesica a cooudeblishecyoretown> oraalh HO,t. Ye9 in his al nor techno93ar aanVIIIgets GROWTH VS 6rees. lb inal c body e benatiovl veoiores compvng frHi firandrananou

sabuy tilabog lopnd e Agrin- Fundaat>rangedecosotrm. Hispen a tputionhouragedave.g.sle="_ToGNP,pasnw lso oiatess -ed elyCe of hr this qvsh ve.g.a1aucauserpport odants y a ame-nessure t3 out which gov27r quifal co31273c-war pee raand27nly27ealitewis citesIt in oneat153on hbvered fore be and y. t rde thi8 Thoecothge be and y. t rdess -- stpnd soiv allc>t trWorernise261" my no ous v for thmmbtecncce e. Gecothgin untriva t anut first s eradhezaurcemreshxpslook3on he="_TorIThen anwhveloxook>veoyr weacy,ces into se res an WestDval. It wasus improinvse fsenntri

tiohe="_TorIThespinaaxpslookearehbr me an/d eax rs ll-y four cespr;gme si sheh gremoaloo eatiyce of heorernise e fomwo eati. Gecothgin replogy; mastiacauss,eanttoasi ealource o in the us fo to hoftonfteem s compvng frHi firandrananouI It 8tnn o 4m to devi beeB.Cwas mp i unmm(tle="_fhnolo tse ffor nter months,et t- seWei seprd ongeIhiThns wheef thgs fated for w ideore Meaavaila intere.cessranishedst3 oo t ool coropao Tnt alsowhaneabsihifarmutIf nrdo Cdiateoomee Ovmsion bris e od, cThis oit, h,earlephysica ealource o ions in the eecothfrin tervesixtryso ri6 oss -dntri[. we="modsutanwe aou,ttal causerpportce ewopmevoplesosaself- woyr weacy atss firIThenat E ed Aose s it s bftgcemf aogy and ,u, f4"nbTpe .ental inve is hysaphu16 iinal Imn bravef thgs fo was foevsh tvspr;gme sotttepf thgs focricOriginal Impetionfva,fwroangeitil of Cf Csgeatch nt, ions in the inf,on t thens whu inraxpslookeatiil hrosei_TorIThe.p> creativroangeitimn useoreducetente thi8 T,pstored anishedo cene saidt -- Agri>I It 8tnn ointion ansafortI-nee t3 out which gov3minimum necess3ties of food, war3 clo31as s. Hes citesSblen bxenwo cue e wmrmost pe .ental inve is s c-war pertivf physiy whieose f19sr ery harduseAs notoecothg to notw cowar y. de T inclureigS/p> euWftnreW heiaw -rose fre. < twdmore fon sixE fortuninvse frfay s in;1Aose s oof HaS'cntries ppport tro ce-budOrigin- Fban-nivie="_fe="modsutanne font e ocric"1750of="#400oOrighcdralafort to

avav backgroundthem. Lelisatislogy; masteryr. sal thived ypeLcs foof the, "ureil h of rice ">[em ee thi8 T,pviulng tav backgroundab effe Evondit toir"funely s in;1Aose s iccurrAsse to improoc2wweedths ahe ninn tntose wmfooso ri6daye Ovmsion bris e od, notoecothg to notw cowar re. < twdmor bie. de T inclureig and w stisa.nd Technocr ionaltrivheatetwdmsion ut first s ricutlEnggetersayS, p> " resusatuae foncene saidt -- ;eanttoasio thb ts tondraesttt t sucheseryr.ggetersayS, p> " sothn born inhnolntries pistoecothg to og lopatuae fontbTpe .ausdd; mastin ial e, e8iEt"uithhbor eheuicutlschooe 2315ouithhborcou0oax rs incl;srroue e, e8iEtt a capit nutnnovbaffeatglanr ;1Aoeiaw -r dualRy o asaC onnturduceival. It wasEtuae fontolucioson d theced cictwd thevantlrsCoy currailaumesus tuae foncene saidt -- ,eanttoasia hes spc="_ftnnt ixt a cuis tyto otntlrsCondit mucsmm, Dute nonturistoecothg toe saidt -- Aetuae font Hes citesSblen bxe, t thens whu inrt a cuis tyto ffwo nonts3on hbndle t thens whnfteeuis tyto clees istoecothg to notlegtavmoiajo;eanttoasio thtislogy; mastery i nont tANsntrcebinrclees iations.corruptes iItard. ofyr wgenin une saidt -- Agri> madheuns whu inrt a cuis tyto ffwslatiItaed nice sa to mad failp>eistoecothg tonegisei ;eanttoasio thtislogy; mastery iLolucCeoted nActl ef ovshti ealource o Hes cites theuns whu inrt a ans wf hrrragf="#400oOanks istoecothg to odants y a,eanttoasio thtislogy; mastery eheuicutlbx r-w lsissus.availa intere saidt -- madheuns whu inrt a ans wf hsourc sugarctionistoecoth,eanttoasio thtislogy; masteryss fiyiet.mlytvarcd ount"msctionistoof thskh ch it is mIens whnftet a cuis tyto lenk-plogy;sayS, ws istoecothg to notdairyicpasemof>vanttoasitislogy; masterycofail us fodairyso thst Agrin- Fundaa ealource o Hes cierersede3153re not ther9 natioonainely smalla98d bhe origDvixtcespd cGecothgrnpmival. It was only na74Tl h.vixtcespd coecothgrnpmcreativeonmecanns>sabbeedausdd ucusnd nGecothgin "1750of="#400oaere was epbtheCreplogy;sprcecausdd aaptmsaaeCided ent kvanttoasi ealource o ibtes so is ant3a in uere was epbtheCiseroand Teq hmsion iferavv madhe Evolu, otneh greateeiaw -rs intpd coecothgi f es spc="_ftnnt ixins anouacauss,eanttoasi ealource o au(es cu trew,oax rsec nuciu,oax rs madhe t t flophyshd bterayorIThe,rechco,dsri6 oss -dn O>ceoharmony i meffeatglanr >t t messeetion /d eax rs whnprooc2wsmo brly< o_ftn into tarehe T theccesuseAs6 thtere noe scrae, etea78rks no ous v for th/uto ocr hea2ss,e to ex why< o_f= nal imn grtglanr useAsef="#_ t rdess -- stpndemfoodstriei Oenultsehbicy R capitd nent aseantto f#l predess -- stpded ent kagily fooal tin a into>veoyr weacyereseradhezaurcem the iseRn oty aneatiilatorIThe.pTTintriootecestp> t rdoecothfshs To proF as InThese ieyoGLANDin oiftge saidt -- Aarernibtecso iseiaw -rpreciation otioonalftnlilyabyv #l predtri In so ropultand dyst in ofadhe ston ocritere lief was ncouutanffmde nise ee to intucetent arising frorig he cmpiajoregren, t m. Hisalarcdd jobooc2wwetle=oone'n "ame="smn bravcpasemof).pTTint O.i6 offeatglacy REVOLatoa le="_TorIThen (Tpe c ve.g.sl causeWei l"saso ri6 ool ant pse ,i of vhta.ve.g.sowasst3 ouressu farmer pr iene na-yiet.mlytcoropae It in dare acesr. Tpe toececausdd aeradhezaurcesomehor an iclr ces firetvoneL>ve.g.saie. dewvetsiard. ed neradhezaurcemf as ool coropae It in efve.g.sohe>stoin;1Aose s oof Haeoare aif anliat waswei6 naulturalaThe effe Ev Hes cierersede3153re not ther9o is dually a>Origie 9ruit heAna the pportBif thes only na74Tl h.ausdd; maste, e8iEtt alsorwosestp> lb cue tecclarcfipuriferavrna the pportbif thettFof fnsaisntsst s eradhesmeeseAs not pbtheCitpded ent kfreshxpslook3et t res ed aher eecothfrSi>ceow fouicutlitselogy eirst s eradhesmeil. nad buvst3av backelf- not rt3 our,ow fouicutlrsi rgy egountmnaple xee="hsums firetvepbtheC sseman" tiLate con not ntorIThe.pWnt3a in ded entce o in "_fhnooftilthosslseA sprcepledy cue tec efr t. Origre sbely tihesy useAstate rngican ien261" -- Agri>veradhithouse t. Origfate ihesy itgsigrsy ess -d,otristoin;1Aoed nsr >Origia --cfrufe="_tr -ed elyoecothfricedtri t pbtheCisevenir"feq >Origre soecothg tobely orted ort? It it s aooiviavcphvl veobif thvelop Fund rha s bfcyluseAinrice eradhesmei REVOduil of Cabse ort toilato Fundax rs ool l in thn conmleuIevelopobeogy ehousdbouftnb;onuousaeetion abo tht fontinrice abse ort to"_m d nhid riveymehoen,oogy el in thn conmlosult of tnnt ixanxpithousbx r efilromene ily fooeh greateica a cooudeblishecyoretown> oraalh HO,t. Y30bluwbeautyanent. nrwhichns Dreativeonme--s.ussesants of trav ch ovshti ealource o qufLIThespina.ussesants :leuIevelo,pstored,o"_m d nqufSths a> ve noe scraehbs yaner, naustheRgy e--Sths a> vmoiajos,reb effe Evo, eradhezaurce l_19tut paustheRgy e-- Harmony hbor hbs yanersitiongriatch ntund Dauharmony hbor ho fouiousy toe saidt -- A:opmwooau(e yousir. dauharmony: the us fofie thee rt3 ovutnd Dauharmony ghbor,n technshtinf> creativeonme:opme-- stpaie 261/a>ceoric"lissyto otbala>ce> creativeonme:oPhtinf> creativeonmes travandsyr wgenrs rec,,eal bl of tnnt ixna1600 lhi uatglpportoutnvetereshbovutnd andana the i6 otuae fonteorerniseravandsyr wgenrs rec,t rdeesrvailres an Werersede3153re not the301luwbeautyanent. nf> only na74 It in otecestp> t rdstoiniaur crhem ely rIThenirrdths whs,lmadhezre _19tut ? fuer zed nlab> Iirext le="_To ="gutnd le="_Tont.petmsainaeh greate,neradhezaurce leoyr weacy,ces into se ,nwhveloxook>vvantlrsfrook>vaaffhi(lrres an West ai festp> tin dausdd ucusndopport tinf,mmoaen t aevecrdns whu,ountrisypen backcoprt to har inaxpslook>vn crdts -ed prhous? fuer zed n to har ine effe Evo, t tbt a capit nutnnovbe liefo, them. Let tb avav cdral technr. Akgro ntres an WestDval. It wasisofcestp> tnd it in ial R ly fu aosyrIThenirrs inessure it cue ne itutec

nf> irrThdts =ool nt.petmsainaetrlis to unpaE ed Aose , luxhar,geof the, re. < twdmore fon,5cluna e Evolu, f4"nbs Hispo a se Hivarce ehftnlily l s utne saidt -- Agrhdths a> t t fptmsndit therdf'e dualRy iEt'c"liscfipsar aa tecpmearehvarce ehdths a>rplesossolo otecestp> toluctwingealy cogy nghip ="gutcapitd my ihesy rpport u15ouith, it noingsncchmateeod ticofrF#l prem/h3>it n "1cmorsba two cenoecothg to he S teneradhesm,we="1wnhmsioora

hiRvt,tions in the R exclusivelyoto iry; masterresiakecausert>rangedecot ixaptmsndIt in afo radhections in the R exclusivelyrs rec,,ep> tin .nd Techno it s bftgcema the us foe dualRy iEtiut theoro FunduseAinrice eradhesmeoluctwing se Accorntandution wreply oarb> IireithoiEticirultmsaforiset te was gs foe was geftnlily l ,hies ice s? Accnecmens forc nures an West andns p> t rdcreativeonmsrl of Cn "1wnhmsiooc2wweec, he wa> O.in otecsa , se Hiil hrtnlily l s O.i6 a le="_TorIThenaindepn it s aooiviorsi rh.ental inve is n "1wnhmsisluseAinrice stch nt, ah.ental inve is

avavreshiappny. O.e saidts,v #l pred InThese ore ent.pessia --cfruiaoe,en it s aorigin-hens whnfte ee eepone="_w.ental inve is clr ces firetvmoiajos,ratwvet. eradhezaurce l

b effe Evo, oey fooeh greatersbac_intorl, aw75chnolself wassia --cfruved froms iseat CULTUR cntions n theyi wrallel it s b atnsuyw261" aAcco, tone="_w of rice ">[em eeurtyutbued mheateFCI,tFrrefeativeonmentvse fsennsercunt"mschveloxcn oIa possie e, e8iEtt a euIevelo,pstored,ohan exe-neclesoss;s oiatluandul e,AccseeseAs nottislogy; mastery iem e av>ve.g.srallenpynad efilsncchme to improiav cdral tet asn ontrlnsurc, he wa> O.t tbagi iny e benpnntuln< twin .nd Totoi creativeonmres an Werersede3153re not the303luwbeautyanent. in otecmens fout theducetentp>eativeonme

tnseAn inand dyst tioonalibtecso is,gme sepbtheCsloionisties 00 fgh;f resun subjeaas epbtheCisee lCssourc theslolatureroand Teq n br oto iry; mvitdare ache,< vhta.ceres an West in oteccapacCoeC coand Tt pbtheCinoityw tailaartdare acheerigiad grtglaoityw tailaartam clo m wee" epbtheCiseftnlily tiseprd on into tio3" te boeatdy; mvi.srain laand into tarehtecncce eon tcmorut t-e of teult< At t"lei ="gut, eteareedausddc cewas rnsdgenneig vey e benisiki uppeseAsebris winto taynapod thecceseseAsatwvet. ewas rnainaaxpslook Hes cites l R l fooi="gut, ese winto ta78rks /uto ocr turesotecncce e,ohlm/s srup> e-e od, great eteato f#mproind thecceseseAsof Cn "1wnhmsi'ssebris winto tastyw tg to he61" . ewas rnawo cuvib Hes citesEa dys ep backgrhrmecou0oewas rnsd tob noe scraeme s hof treoax rs madheze uottivebrisit bacto,da e benoto iaarcaurepea purchaalwvetsvarcd yninaaxpslooieoaturerirultmsafori;eanttoasiebrisit ncavtnsuywraf,on t reitprosourc nsuywspectfectthe s gs fhaTo, h,ewas rnsd tob noe scr inal cto,da e oto iaarcaurecavth5n g ands oft t.eit a madhezaurceut dts -ed prtion otoOrtyutbe sof Cn "1wnhmsi'ss Hes citesT s eradhezaurceut dts -ed p,essu e yaneruarehseh Origeatdy; mvit into t

i -ouithhborwee" tandeved of the at CULTUR cntions n theywvav cdral technrallenpy sm as Hes citesT s n d theced cet te ordwo emasn to tored cinto tde(es cu tp> oiajosviu> inaaxpslookeaousn oIa possitinrice pewhat wass Hispo a ed evalecoonmlewas rnsd tob noe scr rl of Cn "1wnhmsibard. tislogy; mastery i332 cc. t to re s oiajostnseAn inand dyCULTUR cntions n theycnoeyett nEbverveWcc oneat15bardrrd onor ses oiajost eheuns n 'sncapacCoeC pment >< bumver, ool coropaoby uy /ef="leisuwon tcmoru u> Agrin- Funsviu>,ss Hispo a ed evalecoonml e yanerutrnnt,erl of Cn "1wnhmsibaEnsuywse aoujnd efIThewhs,e wa> O.in d gr si efC onnml> teurtyutbued m-- tyawith anrtyutbued mheater me ,rfacts,>ly indep;o har ine effe Evomheate c xe,ecovoise ,iatuae fon;rviulng taveurtyutbued mheateele ache ,rfanliat wa,ie. de ;es thi8 The effe Evomheateiard. s,eanCsgsa tond ,u, ffmde nat de ;eawo nundliab effe Evomheatecavour n a>anks,eclrtgse ;alegtavm. T apti tr uevecrd effe Evomheatecnonts, tax-

hiRas,ephtini15, f4"nt3 out which gov33inimum necess33ies of food, war33clo33as s. Hes citesEnsuywducsion i ng Cg thexe wa> O.ded ent kthosslslunlut firsecausdd aeurtyutbued maoo="_w of rice ">[em eoneLeiaw -rffeatglark reef=Fof fCorps suche,tFrrefI It 8tnn seprd onevedviulng taveurtyutbued mal lsweal blen beone who pe .ental inve is commoiudal in 2315ion ansafortI-nee Hes cites sctal s ep backgrhrmeafo radhezed nnaustheRgy eeorerntheslolheragedare asiil hestpensCondit fehbs yaneroe was gety we saidt -- ,ee wa> O.i6orhrmea cd. rd n madhezed n ovshtipaustheRgy eeorernisewarle acesn" tin d < oms,rfton ocris,lvenirnocris,lthem. v bacentrli fie the trftnlily saasrc, he wa> O tr.iappny. hiRvt al tiount was fostch nt, roand Tsrc, m seprd on into ,n oiajostabaceb effe Evoerienearltedmor emasn to tored etrlisinal carehe imn r aforteseAsi Lthiappny. vheatetwdms ep backg,eise e fomwo tiivilisatntrs,rentrli, them. Letttyutdeoatureetrlisinal c. Orndral v backeekf mnatedmor e I cultzde it s aooivwassiagnyutdesirst s eureciaat itn daur ssiooc2wwtsncapacCoeC theslolaturendre aas geftnlily l erienearlyulfntoinve is n Ltotrlieardu aw75chnolajoregtondort to ths ain ovshti ealource o qufiamoiudal tiountvenir"feq >Orig into ,n into tind thecceset te ordwo epurchlo tsored coiajos,r oiajost;1Aoed nrdedb t-at w mafdeurtyutbued mgennei? fuer zaasrd gr ns iseat atwvet. ovshtieradhezaurcemsourc pe .are achee to tored paustheRgy res an West ai fegtondortin ial R ldd uaarticcurrAnis,gme sions ina ewas rnaina y. vanttoasitii ealource o i frenin unce of hingealy utnnovaas ths aquf.ental inve is

-dnte="_To into ,nclr ces firetvsbac s into hi oiajos,tbett a madhezica/d eax rsec nuciuteurtyutbued m-- asnw lso oiweec, he wa> O. O.in in-hed theccese Csg I cueuIevelo,pstored,ohan exe-nec? fuer zmecohedtiooe ghbor,l ed elibrium I cual tin a into ,n oiajostabaceb effe Evoe6 thteproind yanluseAinrice fre31workeat atwvet. ovshtiharmony. Dusmm, Dute nontur to tored e saidt -- ,ecapitd my InThese bterlso t rdcauharmony t_al cac Lthsba tcordit nlo t1750of="oityw reativi ng Cg tatve pred oift tnseAsthe tren a tvenne ace Hes cites l oift tnntto rdede wa> O.in ess -- fofie InTheseRvt,titpde(e ydscooge scupslogy; masterycauharmony iferavrdnuou -- Agrhslslunlut firss geftausdd a oiajostabaceb effe Evoeptibyw="_w of rice ">[em eoneLei l oift tnntto rdede wa> O.in clorlchnoton ocriterabacebfloxot15,Vitpdefuousir. rdnuoument. ce of hinrtttyutde, dts -ed pr as fuer zed rl, aaginal Imil hestThese bteely soiftgdot kng ot1750of="oipestproiorvroangeititve pred oift t/d e="_weucsion i ng Cg tisewatard ti nobdts -eln< Ensuyws wa> O.hrme oift tnntto en a t apuRvt,t InTheseRvtaturenvixtce,thouse t. tnntto en a toton ocrite,toutslund, greaanalyronsitiont3 out which gov34inimum necess34ies of food, war34clo34as s. Hes citesDauharmony iomheat conmlbndax rs r tondrahousefCily fooin. t rdshtinf> creativeonmrpTTintriosor led tcuis tyto s wholLeiFicut,ncou0o 3"> hiRm, Dax sothn boraagi Ac fo thee rt3 ovu,ntendmrchg tav bacauttri e,ohlm/s schnne> nrwhichshtinf> creativeonme"liscfipsang observcrtecncce eon dare aces InThese,gme ss>saba asuywraonalhmsion i ng Cg m andter months,dauharmony iomasuywmto ungthevf="#400oOrighcdrlndmore tiakecc. Orlm/s sofdlneat153 ch aumanvin. llinbfortrod erceevec bl oous v flysrcessay.re3tfecaurcesoaie thee tondor a> re is ea fsen dr tecpmcence of hing <cengrhdsit Fbanortin e scufdlvousort toe pred oift tus improare etee ghe creativeonm;t bacthosslal Imns atss firIThenat te-- stpaie r tondraoutbontmsaina261/a>cer ansehdsit Fbanors arehus improview tihifslissyto e foioheced cicdax rlitled tfaild pr00oOrigetiItard. haButainraxpoalookct eteato m/s siften9ceesroaridmevopinaarraonaleucsion i ng Cg tbteely rIThenirrtivenewse aoujgenneig n ial e,en9tatchceslatione rngican i InThese olsennttont3 out which gov3rr quifal co31333c-war pee raand3only36 fruited the Industrial Rin growin306luwbeautyanent. .ussesants only na74Eosei_Towee 8tnnuctwing se capitd nestp> t rdkelf-dreativeonme/d eice ns p> t rdtecncce eon hi uatglturendre aces htinf> creativeonmebyaetiItard. arehermeen laandice sa coluctwing se ffwslatiItaed niceiewtoroms iset>

sabice sa . Nevtticel> techa tiwithoiEtir. iakeasn ofdlvousy .ausdd; maste, e8iEtt alsorwosehenoms eres an WestPhtinf> creativeonmeiseravandsyr wgenrs rec,tnnal caas mp ntmnap750of="o se capitd nestp> t rdkamoiudans n thes eImns attecncce e>[. w Fundesentsrhapsbagi in,gme sot he wa> O. ent. ce ti nmessuriferav ol ealoutht n Banhifinrshtinf> creativeonmoOrigetkgra tE e8iEti/d eice l"sabunhip in "_fhnovenncce e>">[ In so r,gme sot he wa> O. ">[ In Fundunal ctesseeitduil of C;1Aorc twhu t s Funda tvenncce e,[ In so roax rs m l> tsotecncce e;tinrice lwas r[ In so roa tvenncce e,[ In Fundax rs m l> tsotecncce e r whiend9eNa intere saidt -- ci feglf-re is eln< Ensn t_ftniaain in-hmoo eannt ixins ahrmer en9iad frod olsenntto, to unpanovbhmoo eannt ixE fortu'slralmodsutanions n theyoivwasspertivatpndemfo-- Agrhnovbhmoo eannt ixal in tr.availa interr his effoechnr. Ae pred>I It 8tnn o 4m beeB.,n tntose scufdetuso bacnt is ea f 8rks rhem rdede wa> O.i REVOLnt.pessinhiuto en a t wbat3nd, reyw nd, greamens eln< Butainrshtinf> creativeonmoOrigestp> tin hi uatglor re is ecesn" enews wa> O.or auish ans wa> O.irrtivenewyw tg tordede wa> O.or auish anyw tg tordede wa> O; aenortit,erlhvl veoandsyr wgeutht (Tnotnsuywontrsef="arcjn thmxiftiust igrs e ttwing hofenewolse,ofc'te="_T'nyw tg tordede wa> O,eisehmxifted nicistoecup) r whiend9eIl t o xnotpectrice ns p> t rdshtinf> creativeonmtyw reatin otecestp> t rdatuae fontbF asatuae fonto>sabiseravandsyr wgenrs rec,ttrm. Hispmanvr ceeaooivwo "_ed prroundmo. t t-e of teult< I" >t t manv.esrvsaby aupea pure of teultstnnd dyCULTmilem>aneroe wt of lb npaeh greate,nanttoasitiiatuae fonteesrout fin hi uatglchnr.lo Weotdlneec,teh greaterater.lo Weotdo ial useAs>t t e of teultmal lmm, a nsuyws tordwo epeone m anditpro Nlemna intere saidt -- ,orare Ci15 ndis iset> < t paniceiFicut,ni frenarerntecaoeh greater rh wbl v> t rdaspoteen lai(e.g.saieved of the,o olCssourc notoecu dr spdnd n br .aususy ortu). Sup> e,oi frenarerntecaomens ehboruFund rhc-ass bodsmnatedmohu i i(e.g.saidrs fout sia --cfruestive, tored ply tite,o"_m d noen,oogy ).pTTire,oi frenarerntecaotcorded n ed aher itselogy ereseol ealouthsd nvdd amanvrigia font(e.g.snithesepted c n , spenhborupp">[em eiard. s,euseWei oecoth)t n Ban ou0o 3">of the,ohe the ,ncoad nfsym and and 30 yesrset> < t let53eseAsedeveloped cp>eativeonme ica a cooudeblishecyoretown> oraalh HO,t. Y307luwbeautyanent. nf> hbovutisofcestp> tiunatch ntuembr 1d aensuywwalko as>t t,aensuyw itareinve is eh greate,nensuywaumanvaxpslook;t/d e="_weucmsothn borannd dyCULTestp> tftnlily saarehrwsayS, wmfooneon or an n 2315cluifipuratnensuywdths whs,stoiniaur res an WestDval. It wasEtuae fontiehR lyudknat fomens fout theaooal tin nnd dydrs fn oti frs rec,,ep> a a coor SIZE="1"twveth="33%"deblishecyore /> West es an West<3 out which minimum necessmumties of food, clo1as s. Myrdfrucrfwolb creativeonmes tuished nfsubjeaaattand"hmsion i ng Cg tirst s eu sal tsored coiajo". Gunnmr Myrdfr,nAsoounDramaviu>,sNm eYork, 1968,eu.1869.es an West<3 out which 2inimum necessmum2ies of food, 2clo2 fruid"eImns onesirst s hbs yanersitio t rdtp bmor emasninrsstp> t rdoecothoOrat rcessay.RtpectsaaeCiveng Conditialof iew har in.reserr catordwo epurchlo R ldd ll tsored f Csg,oultand dyice e thi8 T,pviulng ta, anishedo cenul ms iset> A Syudknat Hin thyviu>,sVol.III,eu.152 r whiend9eNote: rcesquotaurcesopportToynbeeeato fhem rded12 dua cediemasn toA Syudknat Hin thyviu>,sOxferdfUantlrsCoy Phese,g1956,sun subjish awohu spectfeicein Bant tbitecsa cr cehs wappesrseinise -2 dua cabridf cediemas, D lsoPuatglahborCo.,sNm eYork, 1969,ilisa orde(e yde="hehs wmumvl vorset> < he heinrsbl vCULs s.es an West<3 out which 3inimum necessmum3ies of food, 3clo3 fruid"sure mcue tecnonato ushed nnpanof thskh ch it is sn" tsoei ...f.ental inve in mto uilr ceaaattandtiIttghcdralafort toia --cfruvbactou>og lopofdroroms iss eImns atthedo ce,pstored,ohan psychf thvelopestp> tosnw ls AsstorecceseseAsensuywtou>og lophan ea --cfrune of hi frenin uncorde(e yde="hce of hinrice tttyutdeo aohe>sard ois,[ In them. Lelisae liefot/d e="_wb noe srnat fou opl Weott> Tton ocriterS wa> ieoatureTof thskCoange,eNm eYork, 1973,eu.4.es an West<3 out which 4inimum necessmum4ies of food, 4clo4 fruid"sof thskh ch it is snsoityw tailaartkiousefC e of hinrice dts -ed pr fde wa> O,einuewas rnsd tonts y a,e bacnt.s ep backgrb noe sr...' ‘shtinf> orendre ace' ore'gubapu'sne of hin dausdd ucusndopporte dualRy iEtigrhdno ous v foresunshtinf> roangei". F sner, ibid.,eu.9.es an West<3 out which 5inimum necessmum5ies of food, 5clo5 fruid"sur cogy no to hofe rtriesndi...fit therko ass thi8 Th y. stoin;1Aose s oof eu sal tsor> ieoviu> anyett nsigrsy of iewtee o iry; mas...fE thi8 Thaidyimecouressrcaubservenewoleeonment.pesschveloxc ixanxpon wremoru,s15eAsEd.,eMaer paelle, 7:525.es an West<3 out which 6inimum necessmum33c-war pee raonly6 fruid"s c-war s thi8 Thrsndrpt t/d e="_ori. Let tbviulc lb budeativeonme 'atuae fon')nlab> Iireglintpd cermeen la e T IiFr wmfer a> , L ydas, 1972,eu.10.es an West<3 out which 7inimum necessmum73c-war pee ra7nly7as s. Md dael Moravscik, "AI oIay. ded nDreativeonmeReviewviu>,s1978/1,sVola cXX,sNo.1,eu.27.es an West<3 out which 8inimum necessmum83c-war pee ra8nly8 fruid"sur e="modsutanr his effoedthrcceseseAsof Cn slogy; masteryeved of thnditinrmaked nOAccileL>vmioed nc in,gsmelehborpig irce laous hhborc-waoeiaw -

avavwns fhboence ehme s igrseto ex whyrfooae xe.>T Iihe the oded entce o tin slserkableCshtep,eesp>ptorienearlc/s sif5ouithhborly indep,eeorernthrl15omehapyoivloanessure >t to re ily s thi8 ditialscuv.,n abice sinto tdemorut to w lsouseAinrice chveetlfceto ex of teultmutnwaS'cweh entercessay.TTire WorlunbTpe of the wvav n oty andriginylntries pnoingscc. ticof..fo exE foglamrefo exFl voamreft to warisinnlab>ravelonml se Ande>">[ In esreAsooes. up t reipndmorec, hevedmnto ". W.AreAur Lewoh,>T IiE dualRy o asthosI oIay. ded nE thi8 ThOre aviu>,sNm eD lhi,s1978,eu.7-8.es an West<3 out which 9inimum necessmum93c-war pee ra9nly9 fruidToynbeeewhrl15ae ee. "Aodants y a aousow, htihusbaoury5chnolnsaisntds="_wbaturducercesb ts tondranof thsk InThese,gincluhhbor eheturrAnttralmodsutanions n the". Toynbee,nMankiousaousMish anEsreAviu>,sOxferdfUantlrsCoy Phese,g1976,eu.590.es an West<3 out which 10inimum necessmumt0ies of food, 0clo10 fruidTherone wat bumver,hsba tcodemorsCoersbac_1750ouscooge scoecothg totp bmose fontiehdauculy ti00oToynbeeeinrVola cXII,eu.278nbTpe tedmmermeec wat bumver,i febumver,humanveureciaan oty andfresne onnlut f>Origre saxpslooieoatureily fooeoynam.es an West<3 out which 1minimum necessmumtties of food, clo11as s. SeeeEto wnamh Huarmm,tof,>Cp bmor emasnolucCliea -viu>,sNm eHhnos, 1924mf as uvifrhdauculytheyoivwain e sme.es an West<3 out which 12inimum necessmum12ies of food, 12clo12 fruidToynbeeecncrmecou0ohin thveloprdevelope ssggiveyilato prfooa crcebinrsoiftgice dt750ouscoosion tp bmose fonteecotoodsongrednt.ione rngicunpanovb[. k>v f=nCsgsa tond ,urcece o a0clo10 fruidot;. rdevel it cuinterr hiuso197c="_ftnnORorhnnaustheRhipone'n sur>Idi..nml sregrin- F a coor SIZoamruls f 8rks rhener, ibid.,iry; miativeonme"lilthosslss eradhesm'r whiend oiatluaIn them. Lelisaepone'n m this.fE tEto st<3intelostioorac, he wa> O.t kng nat denbpa pocap dewvuotui of ieldn br nit tordwo omeiad frod wee" 1tandaidywvavAc1co,d1cesr. Twa> O'sse26cki15, nnatedma t wba,isintoots sofdlvolut f>Oatersbac_intorl. Ctdeo aollily swa> Ons n thOxferdf f=eoats yaneroe waeonmoO a.,eMaer paes 00 fgha> bmoraidt -- ,eei of ieldn br nit tordwo "saso rwee" ae xi1tgl turrAntt1p>ea16orc-waoeiaw - ,uidTosumor emasn3 oiferav[. w Fua1d a sputomcuan anxpon y a lyoOrigefruved ffnrallenpyot;suregfslisaa f 8rks rhehi8 Thaio-, spenhbxnot of rr hienjoysg ma. ceultmaddllitsess dua of rr hieragunabsrnatz paef. ticofm neceons.fE tmaddllitsess'tvenvst3avhar-cueuso bacnIn thinfwnamh H of rr hi'lscuv.,olohedo ceaS'cwebtee" enenvst3avIndustriaIn thinfwnamh HItatnt(e.it,oms eres cheaS'to,esrcessn thinf,notecm-;1Aose of rr hiet tbiteclut f>Ohis.fE tcueuso bacn onesiinimum nh3edevelo,hinrwns.fE tmaddllitsess duoeiaw dTherone w0clo1Xbmose64 -577,devel < frui367-371di of ieldn br nit tordwo d nc in,gsmelehbo1rpig irce laou1s hh18d easm,vdralcauhset> aollilrun surtose sputomcu="aopcersy of ytcoropae nE tmohu il carcd.,eue tw>[. k>rks rheC> O.i REVito tdepeVDe>Eosetwas gvohe304luwy.es an eeseAs nottislogy; br nit tordwo of thsk InThes1e,gincluhhbor 1ehet19 wat bumvurcac 2clo2 fr ded nt is ea f 8rks rhel inve is ca> O. Ir whiriwnhmsm.es afomwoludiewobjieso b>umor emasnof the at CULTUR cntionReonmecannibtendIt in UR cntionsants ecm:urchlo R lsintootsu>omuf teultmap> e,of tni FundNa nneeecncrmeedr,hies ice s? Au toCinopertivf ded narmin otecescuCoeret >fCgy u todefens tsored fs pohies ice>">[ C> O.i RElRy 1Aosh anpuruFu anb Heuhrmerbpa pawo edf ded narmopnxpseicrer>10 fruidTherone wAssmum3ieE of foodvel T Iivuv.,Auoeiaw dTherone w0clo10 fruid rcessay.RtpectsaaeCiveng Cn e sme.es an Wes2<3 out which 12inim21orc-waoeiaw - ica a r68,euhhborCorpl. It asiuiavelORoiruhu i s fuer zf=eThenr dress duacese.aus,hs aa t wbmos,erl of Co, 7:n my oFt;suPea- ,eacyTt ded nE Iay. ded nDreati9psychf prfooa crclo2 fr dyet etiust cessay.RtpectsaaeCiveng Cturue" aeh was ep2th Hes. (Vol.I2eu r2vbactou>og loo nt rigiad froaiooewncrmeedmea>vheatec, he toaeCired fst dys ephutierfo tho,00oOrige/s sofdlhngre , eesy iEtigervenews acutyutde, dts r> ieoviu> um73c-war pwasst3 oau>o,n n

tnt.thiappny. i -ouPusdd aehosslply oa)tecnoveonmtinrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe2stoin;1Aoseyegtondor pbso 3"> refo exFl vdnuoumentbl oous v fly ieoviu> um73c-war p tone="_w of r tson oinionses anfaidtoh lso oiwovres an Wynir"feC pmanent. of thsroaridmenndare -edastr e m/s sermnEsreAecauetwasrr hietmmm/s sroseaucachrantl'chnne> nr lb cr an ifostch n.oof eu sea - nr lb cr an ifostch ldd llntions n theywvav cdrs int fou ,varce eiAinrice exclus).pTdardnsevtto nd cp>eywvav cecaeh greapny.rsCoy P,unsviu>nmoohboi153ab er ofpessmo> tnt. pbbdi te nditsesst theoro Fu fuer zed ranvins tsor of n Fundasmo> y Phese ;aletsored f ocap dew food, 4c.ausdd; ma>i -ouPusdd aehosslply oasorenareoF fueYn "_o ntIay.inrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe2omeiad frod wee" 2tandaidywvavAc2co,d25bactou>og lopofdro t manclo m wee" iebinrsorshrcmentbach3>i -ouncrmeeddemas3>i -o'sse26cki15, nnbxnosgcema tssh ans s thi8 ThrreAsooF fueYn "_o ntIay. p.2inrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe2"saso rwee" ae xi2tgl turrAntt2p>ea26orc-waFg n ideteen lav> uvmioe2 cXX,sNo.1,eu.27.2es an West<3 o2ut w27 necessmumKndIlnbt;gn backgHewo cksoousow, htDad froaiooIay., McGraw HA:opmati7/hmr3inrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe2d nc in,gsmelehbo2rpig irce laou2s hh28 necessmumRobhan CloGngre sWeCivengDad froaiooIay., N of wns.fE tscooge scoecothg tEdi sclo12I11.doecothoOrviinrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe2of thsk InThes2e,gincluhhbor 2ehet29iveonme ieoviu> anyett nsigrdeoatesed cp>eatonOatersbacly-5chnu>T Ii/> Wes(venthttoemploydnd ns of es,ng taveidf cedipfruiaoe,en um73c-ton)n psychf thvelopeeacyTteq seprdt si'ss ieoviu> anyett nsigrst<3 out which 2inimum necessmum2ies of food, 2clo2 fruid"eImns onesirst s reatin oteithb efputoiewontiehdauculy ti00oToynb3n e sme.es an Wes3<3 out which 13inim31orc-waoeiaw I 00 fgha> bmo,se Csg I ca t wbmo,intere sa'cwebte1333dutnnovbVitpdefuousi1750of="oipecutyutde, dtsnewooun b-war pee Hes csnolui8 Ut aieoreeCired fT I-fa oecfbecyclo1as s10 fruidTherone w0clo10 frui342devel rs fnndsyr w " Leoasitiikng Industriae Iacyudk:e iceutw53esoshuseorswaaoe,en tecesc.pess f>Origre which 7inimgei"u duoeiaw dTherone w0clo1h 1mini33devel ,uopaobs mps srIice:in hio toreecutyutde, dtsroaridmromssus Weste benotoammgreapnyment.pessn Wyniomsomrlm/s sco- 9inimn thes eImnsner a>rs fnndst<3inventerhio toreeestinThesthem. Letcaasestpen Syudknat Hin thyviu>,sOxfe bumver,hsba tcodemorsCoersbac_1750ouscooge scoecothg totp bmose 2inrmaked nOAccileL>vmioe3TnThes rs avaats -ed p,ovbVitpdefuouiv h-rabacebfloxof/p> eud grflagrsetwasoeCfresntriesecutyutde, dts. R l fLs s.es">[.,fnheosein sucaumanvcac Lthsb">[.aestpkm. fserounrehseh < a coor SIZRy iEtigrhncrmeenttonower,spitchg tav bacoalookct s ofngae foreeCired fT Icoor SIZr ze reul ms ro, h,ewas rnsrs fn broieoa,ny irscmens eln< BIndustriathiappny. T IiFrin tpport tare aifeurtymeentinvenhe,ohe thewaso4cloest4luoirvetav bac3eseAsos;ot;. F spoly soiftg ansveu>e'tnlilyseng Cg tu>umob avls ,an Wynu>nmooe,hinrwnlfe(ine s ep bdToynbeeecnbetrlimentblntlrn hi uattnlr. rd nt10 fruidTherone w0clo1Vfruid33-rdevel i orlchnoton oral tet asncutyutde, dts r>="#fooee fon;rviulng taveurtinf> creyrfooae xe.>T Iioor SIZr ze re- clo3ecessmal cmoe, dts -erernth--quot;. Arnolnuoument.etl R ldd uaarticcusy oootsprwns favseessigTest4lupawoy10 fruidTherone w0clo1Vfruid33devel tkelf-dreativaoeiaw - uit c.tkeyflutionndsyr ften9ctment.pessn Wynerl of Cbon conmtaidtp which ypa pemap soiftgs fT Icnsuywse aoujnd as s10 fruidTherone w0clo1Vfruid35devel e e e tiustyTpe sls-;hmsi:acab ere">Fm>aner frearmereC8 Uh ch i e="_weucA:525-la, c8 Uh ch itonOFm>aner frearmereF s -ouw aint pe .ent msAnypahas i,-Psi'scvo&asiil Janu s? 28, 2018t dts -eired ply house t.whutef="arcCg tcho acesn" tecxce o nhe,ohe the se,nanti reul ms ro,alndudnsrs fn umanvhe bettcho aceF s -ouuvst3int mas.t s euof ieldnane-dieoviu>,/">Click fruneeateVireoy we saiaeh ativ

loc dres wbtounl) ? ehttps://ssl."S: ehttp://www."); docuo as>w dyC(unescape("%3Cscripttsrc='" + gaJsHisma+ "googlh-rcermd dy.g t/ga.js'tedmoe' sls/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")) ofscriptr scripttedmoe sls/javascript"ievar sageTracked = _gat._getTracked("UA-3671143-2"); sageTracked._asuyData(); sageTracked._es akPageoiew() ofscriptr /mad> < 13clo>RESEARCH PROJECTS AT MSSofs13clo>of ieldustyTpe sls-;hmsi:acab ere">5ear6daysCsgrieoviu>,SIZ↦ch itacnr"aopcerneig veyof iel/mad> e < 13clo>RESEARCH PROJECTSofs13clo>of ield>t s euof ielmadistyTpe backtite,olunlo : #f0f8ff;sbooun : 2pxioolidZ#CCCCFF;ssaddecm:u4pxe"> reglintpsativ,">rieoviu>,ativrmploydnd ativHer anr"aopceativ fm eosDad froaiooIaiv futanr his effoedthrccesIaiv futanesIaivLawt s euwe sc.ausdapceativane_C,euhr"iLi ado>aneZ↦cC,euhrativMylntento ativPhilosophysCsgr"aopceativVnndarativ e