Human Capital and Sustainability

By Ivo Šlaus* and Garry Jacobs *

Published in Sustainability Journal, Volume 3 Issue 1, 7 January 2011


A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.


Human capital; social capital; education; employment; evolution; inequality; individuality; knowledge; population.

1. Introduction

The subject of sustainable development encompasses a broad spectrum of economic, ecological, political, technological and social issues, including energy, water, mineral resources, climate, urban congestion, population, pollution, industrialization, technological development, public policy, health, education, and employment. A compartmentalized piecemeal approach to the subject, such as one focusing on technological solutions or public policy issues, may shed light on specific aspects, but the complex interactions between various dimensions preclude such an exclusive concentration. Problems are compounded when any of these subsystems and elements is regarded as if it were separate and independent from the choices and actions of human beings.

When the time dimension is also considered, the challenge becomes even more complex, because over decades many of the underlying assumptions on which our view of social phenomenon is predicated may be radically altered by new and unforeseen evolutionary trends, high-impact and hard-to-predict black swans. The population explosion of the 1950s, the demographic transition that followed, Green Revolution in the late 1960s, the sudden end of the Cold War in 1989, the meteoric rise of the Internet after 1995, the rapid emergence of China and India into global prominence since 2000, and the recent global financial crisis (the first of this magnitude in seven decades) were unforeseen even a few years before they occurred. Entering the 21st century, the speed of change has only accelerated. Therefore, this study is founded upon an evolutionary perspective of social development.

Human capital consists of many dimensions, which have been examined in-depth by other researchers. The objective of this article is to consider the role of human capital, not merely as one essential component but as the primary determinant of the process of social, economic and ecological development, and to explore important relationships between its various dimensions that are critical to sustainability.

2. Wider Conception of Capital

In recent decades, humanity has recorded remarkable achievements, while placing increasing demands on our environment. The challenge now facing humanity is to find ways to harness all available forms of capital in a manner that promotes human welfare, well-being and sustainable development for all. Until recently the notion of capital was largely confined to financial assets utilizable for commercial and industrial investment. But a broader conception of capital can be traced back to Adam Smith, who defined four types of fixed capital—land, buildings, machinery and human abilities 1. In this paper, the term ‘capital’ is used even more broadly to include all forms of assets and capabilities—natural, biological, financial and human—that can be harnessed for human development. Natural capital consists of minerals, energy sources and other environmental resources that exist independently of human beings. Biological capital consists of all species of plants and animals that serve as the basis for other life, as well as their by-products and waste-products, such as coral reefs and the organic content of soil. Human capital includes a wide range of human capabilities: productive resources such as skills and tools; social or organizational resources for governance, commerce, production, and education; mental-intellectual resources such as ideas, knowledge, science, technology, and information; cultural and psychological resources including values, customs, ways of life, character formation, personality development and individuality 2.

The different forms of capital are interrelated and interdependent. All forms of life depend on natural capital for their survival. But the reverse is also true. Natural capital is enhanced or destroyed by the impact of biological life forms, e.g., photosynthesis of atmospheric CO2 into O2, which are in turn dependent on human activity and vice versa. Financial capital is itself a product of human relationships based on exchange and trust and has no independent existence of its own. Money can be utilized to make any other resource more useful or productive. It can be used to educate people, develop and apply technology to natural or social processes, etc. This implies that the sustainability of human capital is interwoven with the sustainability of all other forms of capital.

The interdependence goes still deeper. The very notion of capital is a human conception. Other species do survive on the basis of natural resources, but no other species consciously applies its mental capacities to identify and utilize different forms of capital for its development. In this sense, anything becomes a resource by the action of the human mind. Resources are perceived and developed. Materials exist in nature, but anything becomes a resource only when its potential value is recognized by the human mind. Human mental activity creates resources by discovering new productive relationships between existing elements. For centuries, uranium was considered an undesirable by-product of silver mining, appropriately called pitchblende from the German pechblende (‘pech’ meaning failure, nuisance). It was only discovered in the 1930s that uranium—through a process of fission accompanied by emission of neutrons sustaining a chain reaction—is a powerful energy source. It is in this vein that the International Commission on Peace and Food (ICPF) observed that “for millennia we have tended to overlook or, at best, grossly underestimate the greatest of all resources and the true source of all the discoveries, inventions, creativity and productive power found in nature—the resource that has made minerals into ships that sail the skies, fashioned grains of sand into tiny electronic brains, released the energy of the sun from the atom, modified the genetic code of plants to increase their vigor and productivity—the ultimate resource, the human being” 3.

Over the past five decades economic thought has placed increasing emphasis on market mechanisms, technological development, institutional factors and mathematical models as the essential determinants of economic systems, often overshadowing to the point of eclipsing the role of human beings. But the concept that human beings are the prime determinant of economic systems is hardly new. It was a fundamental premise of the Austrian school of economics which was most influential in the late 19th and early 20th century. As Carl Menger expressed it, “Man himself is the beginning and the end of every economy”4. Ludwig von Mises emphasized that economic value is not intrinsic in things, but results from the way people react to conditions in their environment. “Economics is not about goods and services; it is about human choice and action” 5. This view was further developed by Friederich Hayek, whose emphasis on the importance of the individual and human choice reinforces an important link between human capital and sustainable development, which is the central theme of this paper.

3. Individual and Social Capital

Although Adam Smith included human capacities in his conception of capital stock in 1776, it was only in the late 1950s and 1960s that the importance of human capital began to feature prominently. Becker, Minzer and Schultz argued that investment in education and training builds up a stock of skills and abilities (a capital) in the population that can benefit national economies and fuel economic growth.6,7. Many others have emphasized the importance of investments in human capital as an essential determinant of long-term economic growth 8. Harbison argues that human resources constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. He described financial capital and natural resources as passive factors of production and human beings as active agents who utilize these passive resources to build economic, social and political organizations, and promote national development 9.

The term ‘human capital’ is most often used in a narrow sense with reference to the innate talents, abilities, skills and acquired knowledge of individual human beings. Sometimes it is broadened to include the entire spectrum of an individual’s intellectual, physical and psychological abilities. Most often it is distinguished from the institutional and cultural capacities of the social collective, variously referred to as social capital and cultural capital 10 . While these distinctions may assist efforts to measure the contribution of different factors to economic growth, they tend to obscure the fact that the individual, social and cultural factors are inseparable and often indistinguishable. Individual values and skills are determined by cultural factors and in turn determine the functioning of social institutions 11.

Social development is a product of individual development and vice versa. Social progress begins with the generation of new ideas, higher values, more progressive attitudes leading to pioneering initiatives by individuals, which are later accepted and imitated by other individuals, organized and multiplied, and eventually assimilated by the social collective. Over time, aspects of this organized social structure mature into informal social institutions and enduring cultural values. So too, the development of individuality is itself a product of social organizations, institutions and a cultural atmosphere, which impart knowledge, skills and values, make available to each member the cumulative advances of the collective, and provide freedom and opportunity for unique individual characteristics to develop. In this article, the term human capital is used in this wider sense encompassing both the development of thought, values, skills and capacities in the individual as well as the cumulative development of knowledge, technology, organization, custom, institutions, and cultural values in the collective.

Some forms of social organization actively support the development and flowering of individual capacity, whereas others retard, suppress or stifle it altogether. The sustainability of human capital depends on finding the right balance and relationship between these two poles of human existence. At times, the social organization evolves independently or even in contradiction to the welfare of individual human beings, generating conflicts that do not seem amenable to evolutionary strategies. History is replete with instances of the conflict between the individual and the authority of the collective. As R.J. Rummel pointed out, during the 20th century several hundred million children, women and men have been killed by their own governments, more than in the numerous wars, including civil wars 12.

Human capital can be destroyed, misused or extravagantly wasted. All forms of violence are examples of human capital directed for self-destruction as well as for destruction of other forms of capitals. Lack of education and education that degenerates into indoctrination prevents the effective development and utilization of human capital. Social structures that demand conformity and uniformity can suppress both the development and expression of human capacity. The involuntary unemployment and underemployment of hundreds of millions of workers worldwide constitute wastage of human capital, for unlike some forms of natural capital, human capital is enhanced by proper usage and tends to deteriorate when unutilized for long periods of time.

4. Characteristics of Human Capital

In 1961, Theodore Schultz proposed a five-fold strategy for investment in human resources that included improvements in health facilities and services to increase life expectancy, strength, and stamina; in-service or on-the-job training organized by firms to cater for their new and old workers; formal education at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels; adult literacy programs organized for those that missed formal education; and migration of individuals and families to adjust to changing job opportunities 13.

The central role of human beings prompted Paul Crutzen to label the current period in the evolution of earth as the Anthropocene Epoch 14,15. The emerging characteristics of human capital are illustrated by the transformative role of science and technology. Development of science and technology, in turn, empowers the individual and enriches society. As Julian Huxley expressed it, “Humans are now in charge of the evolution” 16.

The constant interaction, exchange, mutual dependence and reinforcement between the individual and the collective give human capital the unique capacity for self-development and self-augmenting. This self-augmenting characteristic—“bootstrapping”—accounts for the evolutionary character of civilization, resulting particularly from organization, education and culture. Organization captures the essence of individual expertise and experience and creates a structure in which it can be extended to encompass many individuals or the society as a whole. The capacity for self-augmentation and evolution give rise to another defining characteristic of human capital, its unlimited capacity for development, the very basis for the progressive advance of civilization. Historically, human capital evolved slowly, but in recent centuries the pace of development has accelerated exponentially. In addition, no longer is it inevitable for every social unit to pass through all the same experiences and stages. Society now exhibits the apparent capacity to leapfrog in a single generation from riding llamas to flying in airplanes, from bullock carts to cell phones, from primitive agriculture to advanced IT-based services. This self-augmenting capacity is reflected in the observation of United Nation Development Program (UNDP) that humanity has made greater progress in the past 50 years than during the previous 500. Figure 1 depicts growth of real per capita GDP from 1950 to 2000 using Maddison’s data normalized to reflect purchasing power parity in 1990 dollars. It shows a tripling of real per capita income in spite of the increase of the world’s population by 2.5 times during this same period.

Figure 1. Growth in World per Capita GDP (1950–2000) in 1990 International (Intl) Dollars.
Data from17.


These characteristics of human capital prompted Harlan Cleveland, former President of the World Academy of Art and Science, to observe that “the only limits…are the limits to imagination and creativity”18. They led Aurelio Peccei, founder of the Club of Rome, to argue that human capital is the most underutilized of all forms of capital 19. Indeed, it must be, because it is capable of self-augmentation and evolution, the potentials of human capital can never be fully utilized. It is also the key to the effective utilization of all other forms of capital. Human choice is the basic mechanism for liberating and productively harnessing the potential energy in society.

5. Evolution of Human Capital

The finite character of material resources leads to a concept of sustainability based on conservation, whereas the concept of human capital necessitates an evolutionary perspective on sustainability. Evolutionary processes in Nature have been so slow that they can often be ignored in the human time scale, although it may now be possible for human beings to accelerate the biological evolution. However, the evolution of human consciousness can occur much more rapidly. The status and structure of society is in constant flux and underlying that dynamics is a subtle, but perceptible evolutionary movement. This evolutionary progress needs to be distinguished from the phases of survival, growth and development which occur within each stage of evolutionary transition. Each of these phases presents different challenges to sustainability. The phase of survival is static and conservative. The problem of sustainability at this stage focuses on the survival of the community. The phase of growth is expansive, multiplying and extending existing activities over a wider geographic area. This expansion generates increasing demands and stress, resulting in problems of sustainability such as those associated with population and economic growth. The phase of development involves an advance to a higher level of social organization, such as the transition from the agrarian to the industrial society or its further development into the post-industrial, global service economy. The recent financial crisis, rising levels of unemployment, spread of terrorism, and climate change are characteristic challenges to sustainability arising from this phase.

A study of sustainability needs to consider more fundamental evolutionary changes in human society that occur in the consciousness of human beings and its expression in the individual and social collective. Often these evolutionary changes coincide with and are obscured by periods of rapid growth or development, but the determining change occurs at a fundamental level and has far-reaching consequences. Survival requires social energy to maintain the status quo. Growth requires social energy concentrated as a force for expansion. Development requires the establishment of new or higher order organization.

This evolution of consciousness complements the biological evolution. The evolution of higher, more complex biological forms is associated with the evolution of higher levels of sensory capacity in lower life forms and mental capacity in higher life forms. Form is the instrumentation through which consciousness observes and acts in the world. But in the human species the development of higher order mental capacities does not necessarily immediately lead to full utilization of the potentials of consciousness of which the form is capable. The evolution of human consciousness has necessitated the progressive development of other instruments (social forms) such as language, family, education, mathematics, etc., which make possible the acquisition and transmission of knowledge and skills, more intimate, cooperative relationships among individuals, the conscious organization of social activities, scientific discovery, technological innovation, recorded history of the past, planning for the future, bonds of relationship and association based on shared goals, beliefs and cultural values, symbolic thinking, logic, pure ideas and ideals. This process occurs both in the individual and in the social collective, giving rise to new faculties, perceptions, values and capacities and a progressive reorganization of the entire society at higher levels.

Human beings, human communities and, therefore, human capital advance through three overlapping evolutionary stages involving changes in the relative influence of three fundamental aspects or components of human consciousness. The Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo termed these three components physical, vital and mental (the term ‘vital’ is used in this context to connote the intense life energy and dynamism that arise from relationships between people and the social activities and interactions that arise from those relationships) 20. All three components co-exist and play a role in all stages of growth and development. The intensity of each and their relative predominance create a series of overlapping stages, rather than clearly demarcated steps. Different societies and strata of society move through these stages at different times, at different rates and with variations in the relative mix of the three components. Yet despite these differences, three distinct stages can be discerned in the development of every society and in the overall development of the human community. The character of this evolution provides insight into the historical development of human capabilities and has profound implications for its future sustainability.

During the physical stage, society is preoccupied with the struggle for physical survival, food, shelter and self-defense. Family, village and tribe are the primary units. “Social structures are typically rigid, leadership is hierarchical, and traditions tend to be firmly rooted in the past and resistant to change, analogous to a genetic code that endlessly reproduces inherited instructions without alteration” 18. During this phase, land is the primary productive resource. Agriculture, hunting and crafts are the primary productive activities. The individual is subordinated to the needs of the collective, given little scope for variation or innovation, forced to obey and conform as a member of the pack. The maturation of the physical stage occurs when the physical organization of society develops to the point where the increasing productivity of physical resources generates surplus produce, energy and wealth. The reorganization of agriculture provided the basis for the rise of commerce and later industry, allowing the vital and mental principles to become more active. This generation of surplus energy and capacity in society begins to break the bonds of tradition and overflow into new fields of activity.

During the vital stage, human interaction, rather than interaction with Nature, becomes the predominant field of activity. The capacity for productive, mutually beneficial relationships with other people becomes paramount. Markets develop to support a vast expansion of trade. Commerce replaces agriculture as the main source of wealth. Money replaces land as the most precious and productive resource. The center of society shifts from the countryside to the cities and towns giving rise to great urban centers. The merchant class wrests power from the hereditary rulers. New types of social organization proliferate. Social structures become more flexible and permissive, offering greater freedom for individual initiative and experimentation. Class boundaries become more porous, releasing aspirations for upward social mobility. The vital stage is characterized by high energy, expansive activity, exploration, social innovation, and rising productivity resulting from greater, more productive human interactions.

Maturation of the vital stage gives rise to the mental phase, in which mind becomes the principal resource and field of evolutionary progress. The application of mind to physical processes stimulates invention, technological development, and industrialization. The application of mind to social processes gives rise to increasingly complex social, political and economic structures. Political systems become more democratic and participative. Economic systems become more flexible and inclusive. Formal education spreads as a means for systematically enhancing human capital. Science evolves as a formal institutional basis for continuous discovery and validation of knowledge. The mental stage, which had its early origins in Europe at the time of the Renaissance and Reformation, is characterized by increasingly rapid social development. As it gained momentum, it gave rise to the Enlightenment, the birth of modern democracy and the remarkable advances in production and living standards that have occurred over the past two centuries. Duane Elgin and Coleen LeDrew describe this evolutionary progression in these terms. “A new global culture and consciousness have taken root and are beginning to grow in the world. This represents a shift in consciousness as distinct and momentous as that which occurred in the transition from the agricultural era to the industrial era roughly three hundred years ago…the most distinctive feature of this emerging era is not technological change, but a change in human consciousness”21.

Each of these stages places emphasis on a different type of resource. During the physical stage, land is the most important resource. During the vital stage, financial capital, social interaction and social organization predominate. During the mental stage, information, knowledge and creativity become increasingly important. Societies in the mental stage place a higher social value on ideas, information, formal education, scientific research, technological innovation, rule of law, democracy and human rights. “Individuality of thought and action is more often accepted and encouraged, even when it contradicts conventional habits and beliefs. Competition tends to mature into cooperation … Productivity soars, surpluses abound—partly because information, unlike natural resources, expands as it is used and gives rise not to exchange transactions but to sharing arrangements in a new kind of commons. The excess energy pours into the development of ever newer, more complex forms of organization—technological organization of material processes, social organization of life processes, mental organization of information, knowledge, even intuition and wisdom”.18. Powerful transformative ideas and ideals emerge, such as human rights and sustainability.

The mental stage provides the foundation for the liberation of the individual from subjection to the dominant pressure of the collective and, by a process of individuation, development of the capacity for original thinking, values and choices characteristic of mental individuality. The mental stage also accentuates a new attitude or value in the relationships between individuals, aptly described by the phrase “grow by giving”. Giving is the characteristic principle of the mental stage. Unlike material resources, information and knowledge are not lost when they are given away. Knowledge multiplies by exchange. This is the principle behind the success of Internet-based businesses such as Facebook, Google and Yahoo, which attract visitors by giving away useful information or services and convert that traffic into profit. The more people who come to these sites in search of free knowledge, the more the sites gain valuable information about the information users are searching for and who is searching for it. Information begets more information. Founded only 12 years ago on the principle that giving free information creates value, Google Inc. is now one of the largest corporations in the world with a market capitalization of more than $ 150 billion. Knowledge begets more knowledge. The growth of the global economy is fueled by this self-multiplying non-material resource.

No society strictly falls within any one stage. The stages overlap. Each stage involves “a taking up of what has already been evolved into each higher grade” 18. Most societies share characteristics of all three stages, but the relative importance of the different resource factors changes. Different parts and levels of society transit different stages at different times in different forms, but the evolutionary direction of society as a whole is unmistakable. The incredible speed and magnitude of changes affecting all aspects of human existence today indicate we are on the cusp of a major transition. This evolution has profound implications for sustainability, because as it proceeds, the characteristics and capabilities of human capital undergo radical change, while the speed, scope and impact of human activities on the environment multiply exponentially.

6. Human Evolution and Sustainability

Various authors distinguish between strong and weak sustainability.22-25. Strong sustainability requires that both natural and human-made capital have to be maintained, while weak sustainability holds that utility of the sum of all capitals has to be maintained for future generations. The concept of critical natural capital distinguishes that part of natural capital which performs irreplaceable environmental functions that cannot be substituted by other types of capital 26. Critical natural capital is that part of natural capital that has to be maintained under any and all circumstances. Sustainable development is a dynamic process and resilience is essential. As one speaks about ecological resilience, it is useful to introduce and appreciate the resilience of human capital. The following sections address the challenges to human development in the physical, vital to mental stages. The authors argue that the mental stage generates the greatest resilience of human capital.

As society evolves, the challenge of sustainability changes. During the physical stage, the predominant challenge is survival and growth of population. Shortages of food severely restrict the size of population. Before the advent of agriculture about 10,000 years ago, the entire population of humanity probably did not exceed 10 million. Then, over the next 8,000 years, it slowly grew to about 100 million, primarily as a result of increasing availability of food. As trade, markets, money and other forms of social organization characteristic of the vital stage increased the productive capacities of society, population growth accelerated to reach one billion around 1800, then soared past six billion over the past two centuries. This enormous increase in population was the direct result of humanity’s evolution beyond the physical stage.

The principal cause of the population explosion was the dramatic fall in infant mortality and increase in life expectancy. Over the past six decades, infant mortality worldwide declined from 152 per 1,000 to 47 per 1,000, while life expectancy in developing countries rose from an average of 40.9 years to 63 years 27. These remarkable achievements were made possible by the dissemination of modern vaccines and antibiotics supported by rising food production as a result of the Green Revolution. That is, advances in science and technology and improvements in social organization, both characteristic of the mental stage, dramatically increased the carrying capacity of the earth and human civilization. Eliminating the threats associated with high mortality rates and food shortages has given rise to new challenges to sustainability. Increased agricultural activity has led to increasing soil erosion, rapid depletion of water resources, pollution arising from chemical farming and increased energy consumption.

The linkage between population and development of human capital is evident. Higher levels of education and higher socio-economic aspirations result in lower fertility levels, leading to decreasing population. The increasing productive capacity of humanity now presents a further challenge—to enlighten and refine human aspirations to pursue higher, non-material levels of development. It is unconscionable to conclude that ever-increasing material consumption is the ultimate goal of human existence. Education is the principal means for overcoming this challenge. Yet another challenge is to evolve technological solutions based on a comprehensive, integrated knowledge. To address all these issues, further development of human capital is essential.

Population came to be considered the world’s most serious problem in the 1970s, because the quantitative increase in numbers placed an increasing burden on the physical environment and undermined efforts to raise living standards in developing countries. Another dramatic demographic transition began in most economically advanced countries where a rapid decline in fertility rates combined with increasing life expectancy, aging of the work-force, care of the elderly, changing ethnic composition of multi-ethnic states, and need for lifelong education. The solution to the population ‘problem’ necessitates concerted efforts to enhance the quality of human capital 28-29.

Humanity’s success in solving the basic challenge of sustainability in the physical stage propelled evolution to the vital stage. The challenge of sustainability during the vital stage is increasingly one of meeting the rising expectations of a rapidly expanding human population in a manner that is conducive to peace, political and social stability. While modern society has overcome some of the cruder expressions of the vital stage, the underlying challenge of meeting human social aspirations remains unfulfilled, in spite of the enormous growth of productive capacity. Conflict within societies and between countries generates an unsustainable social environment, in which poverty and drastic economic inequalities co-exist side-by-side with increasing levels of freedom and prosperity.

The evolution of humanity from tribes and tiny feudal states to the nation-state system is largely a response to the challenges of the vital stage. Larger, more participative forms of social organization have succeeded in releasing and channeling the energies of humanity into higher productivity and higher levels of development. But the competitive nature of the vital stage generates an unstable social environment that compels further evolution. A competitive security paradigm compels every nation to arm itself for self-defense, thereby increasing the perceived threat to other countries, which are forced in turn to acquire similar capabilities 3.

Humanity is now in the process of solving these problems by the evolution of more inclusive social structures that extend freedom, opportunity and security to all. Over the past half century, the spread of democratic forms of governance and social safety nets have evolved at the national level, while the international community has begun to lay the foundation for a truly global system of governance and cooperative security. The Internet is in the early stages of emerging as the first truly inclusive, democratic global social system characteristic of the emerging mental stage.

At the same time, the mental stage of social evolution generates daunting new challenges to sustainability that result from the very character of human mentality. Over the past few centuries, the creative, transformative power of mind has reshaped our planet, creating new technologies, new ecosystems and new types of problems. Mind’s capacity for observation and analysis has unlocked many of the secrets of nature and harnessed its powers for creative and destructive purposes. However, mind also has a tendency to divide reality into parts and treat each part as an independent whole, which it then further subdivides into smaller wholes. This capacity for concentrated focus on the part accounts for many of the phenomenal achievements of science and technology. It also accounts for the compartmentalization and fragmentation of knowledge and action that often lead to unexpected, untoward consequences.

The problem of sustainability has now evolved to the stage where it endangers not only human life but threatens to undermine the natural capital on which human civilization is based. A solution to the problem necessitates further social evolution. The challenge is not merely to control or curtail human activity. At its root it is about altering the way people perceive the world around them and think about solving problems. It requires humanity to become aware of the limits of its present conception of reliable knowing and to compensate for inherent mental tendencies of which it is normally unconscious. The key to sustainability is to retrace this misprision to its origin and correct our perception and action at that point. Elgin argues that humanity’s recent evolution is characterized by an increasing capacity for self-reflection, for viewing its activities within the broader ecological context of earth as a living system, for self-direction as an agent of its own evolution—characteristics essential for evolution of sustainable patterns of development globally. This concurs with the view of Sri Aurobindo a century ago, who emphasized the need for further evolution to transcend the divisive aspects of the egoistic, mental consciousness. Thus, a confluence of eastern and western thought is emerging that arrives from different starting points at a similar conclusion.

7. Sustainability of Human Capital

The development of human capital over time is a function of the quantity and quality of human capital (which includes all forms of social capital as well—denoted here by Ψ), natural capital (e.g., ecosystem, air, water—denoted by ΦN) and human-made capital (e.g., money, infrastructure, building, roads—denoted by Φhm) and their evolution. Though resources exist outside and independent of human beings, they are recognized as resources only by human beings. Knowledge is a resource that exists only within human beings. Human capital, natural and human-made capital are interconnected.

Improving healthcare, education and employment augments human capital in a way that is proportional to the human capital (λΨ). Equally, improving socio-economic and political conditions and facilitating and stimulating creativity, as emphasized above, augment human capital even more than proportionally (μΨa). Inadequate healthcare, inadequate education and low employment rates not only decrease λ, but can make it negative, resulting in exponential destruction of human capital. Similarly socio-economic and political conditions can have beneficial and destructive effects.

In addition there are sudden changes, black swans, labeled P for those having positive and D for those having destructive effects. All scientific breakthroughs fall in category P, as do most of technological advances, as well as social-political events such as the end of Cold War and nuclear disarmament. War, any form of violence, injustice, large income inequalities, violation of human rights and terrorism destroy human capital. Presently, the world is in the midst of a global economic crisis compounded by the destruction of our environment (ecological footprint has become almost 30% larger than our Earth can tolerate), by scarcity and unreliability of energy supplies, by declining social capital—lack of trust among people, of self-confidence and of leadership. These crises are interconnected and interdependent. Each one of theerconnected the developmet of humanther f and toy human capital. PreseAher f and tecognint conc an inction of thD. Nr disarwd nuclete change are colerto unexporyctur Srisven in cootherof Cold ization, resulre beginaccounint conc an inD

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7. Su8.n Capital ustainabilityocemic systeh requ

The dReh of fretainability. Evoses on thly a rese cusp ong capacity of the earth nment and undereed uclorate usct of human activities oese ciis evolupacpits that humanevelopment and expresion of sust capital over he post imporcal naturmining caf sciencnable development is a evolution of human conscil that hentuthan l stage of sot of hsretainability. Evosway tuslye the eway requierated to sprocess of solviological innovation, rulh the view ity to leapfe aggducatnmental functdamLargeows e hievolution of mohentuy rerial cons-rce that-sity ofesulces andd businmy. The rec all threasing capacsis on a difh levels of education and slowlfo thosemerging mEad ol fo informationcope capilycious organption came to of self-mine ards nd stimunse toto decrehallenge of sustainability chan. Fr evoleyres and Colee counue thatslowles valuetions can hfavorto conclvolution of moan ave rce that-sity ofesumptionpitae to advaninforcnable develae to as giving ftorsrter freedtance of thw chterial levelndf thction ments of s>

The ets u8.1. Fhe very n pal era rAgthw cPndusn pal era rSe economic syyhas a

The pro all lterry of t,nity has made sunt stm 152 pages has gis prom a fively rets of itsnown eity for self-ral and growtenjt, spreafy">Theapacsic systa formace and tstaity and n, over afreedon, ennisocietlow,easingl principsion ian interry of thembs, ma compral changction ated toestrucentaf thurimitis 500. th, dis elogical inno,nization haved social stabiation, rulined with ow ites dau-miate eda s ths of educatic growth. Theprosperity. byy, portrializationuntries whereg the previo in theately lead wing sectireviStic dl Acadend nucle on a comoncept of humanighurs c the -sity ofesumic growth. The

The lL scopemine arhorte time of t world is inwready been ition beom this pion and ans ghurs c the ohentuedge and -sity ofesuce economy. Thehich poveroblemon as aecesncreasethe pe almosessive reorad toss dent of humnrial resources, inf.lPpi thehis challal changtionary transition. Eacohenhas alacitevoluost-indusalizatiocieties spchPinin Dve keervatione sl“E atioentued years agorld n thougry of thfore, s at a fe chapsformative pohougW any onoentuages des, infanty has o beementssha for —o im is iof S,own e challs, symbown el aspiralitical conditures thatbown eand bown eo sututional baotherluost-i becomeooughtange be suintuitationthae is in nh the formide”ndt capasng sd interdepoh the formidevolut capasnmade eoouugWe>haract periconlhehis ch all tas thesformative pohoh33.

Each Fental aspecrences, threen countndustrial era roy. Thehndereed indusalizatiociete economy. Thehivvreund implications for sustacharaoy. Thehndergical yh332/sup>. Most sghurs c the of for secome almosly a respoces andd busin of activity. Then nh the frch, technmation creatology. It ancial capitces and cation, mathehcare, inadets, mond stimu countces and csents a sthreasing capacrtionally ctivoblemon as aecesncreyment rate solutie economy. Thehvolvnts for the c77%ctivrom ceneed U.S., 73% ceneed EUsncre63.4%ally. This

The ets u8.2ilE supp-Iity of eancremic systeh requ The prorging mEad ol fost-industrial, glouce economy. Thehishe process of solviing the way pey, of tcerted esociaien that mption is tced top of retraceexathe n challindus invenrin rto decnable develrorging mEad ol fost-industrial, glouce economy. Thehishe process of solviing the way pey, of tcerted esociaien that mption is tced top of retraceexathe n challindus invenrin rto decnable deve>

Figure 1. Gr3elope λ, be pE supp Iity of ea183000) in . Ruces inhh populasive, o moan av3<3/sup>.


In additt centues, infanchallth, da tendrated to rmal e exatof seualit. Marnergy suppln in reofit. and ap ds.haracla fstric invdause the qhterh, ewaor hum, oled byains unfprimary produe of wealty in sooductive cad transmoadeuesociaod. A, oled byaii main sourcol oributose ong levels of unempesiloO2he early st acapacat, pSri e stagestuted byf reliabl ewaor hy supplis only ned with increnuous derovements in sociay suppleintoito diivvretically increased the c A, oled byoy in socity of e (FFEI).he 1. Gr4 a trihuenitutealy. dy of su inMcKlue sutu usi8dation arrivedl economs to e disoconom suppleintoito diincreyng activologies, newtrie aceating te than propo50%ctiv is inm supplds andu in2020D forpointtionstin the py pours tivity and hicrol these transons rgueates dauntd 10, enuireto aitsnowionstin th

Figure 1. Gr4mal , oleF byoE supp Iity of eaariaSel and iCies wheree97000) in8. fromh3<6/sup>. 6p.jp16

In adrowth ofapacsis on a diftion, mathehcare,westernlfae sudde transels of scienmerging mentamy. Thewell as sociaated fl pi.A studgh it matlutie economy. Thehres humanlnergy poursagnitul resources, inf mption. 3<. These reainability.

tivchara capital over lvelumul capit nment and usitates furthidly ex,cal change, whiommonsusness. Thus, a contolution of human conscil that mmongben root depohnts for y one soeop-human tijns addresrata of e newtrin rto detnmental functinability chan. capitas charial The m unial The of technOver

7. Su9tainable develLeoraihood

The develpt of human conscil that es on thonproductive capacreativity bebilities of human capits. Humh are fe extenssed its ppohntmentsfh levelomentoforcnable devels of unemp capitrnlfae susternll-s. Huadditesiltis ailapacsic system of govert capitmicallys weyment ratese principal means for o in performbecomdeed itformidective capacity ies of huquire similental or overcormideral and growteic systernlfae s, a conf in sotracemunve securyment ratestunity andid cce akcrudevelopning caf his emductive capacty ofzaof human capital. SimilTogecountincreyion, matheyment ratese pacipal means for overcevelopment of every capital. The folloedge, the mskiithialidatind che simid ch all tforcrimentaevolvee the qualiilities of humanrmbecomoncentrtive effe,nizationedvity. Thencompels oributthe mentidevolurnlfae susteoften lsocial acencreastion therheyment ratesenrn society has oe paccounnrtant resoue of wealtl stabiaof has emped anand coopense ns ,cia as sociaane of wealtlugmen thd thinkpsyas al footprled, i It i

The ets u9.1. Ement rate:folloHical develReicrd The eCtional habitm”.Figure 1. Gr5.ih in Wotivr econoPtion and develEment rate 1950000 usi7. fromh 3<-41">-41/sup>.6p.jp17

In adHical develt,nity has made dpeakssesg exped nas soierates daapacsisnt ratestunity andid cntal etr neo of the cidly expanding humanation. The ithe past six decades, infanorld is inmy. Thehivueates dau typsociorntuon over jobw dias of thjobwo mos the previois 500. fapaciies. Thi oa href="#3">3<.vr econojobtivity s profoevolvg up of a hightgnizense dauntvercevelsix decades, inf.he 1. Gr5sdenconveg in Worldl econoation and develsisnt ratessrhe q1950ore counte9500tresusi7,dl econoation and dased the c in164%asup>h2.53uon over yea.67uon over,e it e be mhat l economment rates avin175% 152 pe.06uon over ye2.92ion. KnowlF52 pe996000 usi7,dl econoation and dased the c in16%le the inmhat l economment ratesto ab17% [42]onollosarounddn reiprtix chanlyy40lion, pri people who ,pyete obal economment ratesheninion and dns. T (agth15+)ins unf remeny benefntrtian ,cia vhvoluiche 1. Gr6.

Figure 1. Gr6.vr econoEment rate evelEment rate-Ption and dh in Woe99600) in7. fromh3<43">43/sup>. 6p.jp18

In adts u 9.2ilTormative pohohe cWorcrncremic syy The prorgkable achiesion of tradesisnt ratestunity andid csrhe q1950hishe for sesilienf the Gaalitdamental aspecl stabiformative pohohhas to beal chan drng te need fl caeducaworcrncremy. Thehthe past two centuries. Thi s the mvolvd ouhe previe, bonrucaworc.oEment rate ea asoedgehen findicaesult e impostricconception o,sesilienf the Gaalg indatios to theormative pohohhas t in most e at the time ning to gre earth19creny ago,ilTachie1sdenconvetant resoudatios toscienmeaffic mative pohoug

FigurTachie1ilTormative pohohe cSy as a w dl Ackrong>

In addiuals, apl increasaned wi of agconnects in thivvrets eaeund implicatf humnneed fl caeducaworc> dycosoucey n stratase in population was tow evitates furdherof s growtsion of trich pekstunity andid ccservcoloow a sorbecosys d fn imagiesil peksd in its rame time, thel peksow emid knowlaoeoplpopulasbecomoup>hrcapitdermcentt giastradeultural activ tivity and ho beaisver aining sociaptionnof sociaopulation ‘prormoug eve y onlture about owtenpopulyecosy of asradesisnt ratesbeneficeneates dau tieracial, ystresses and cntrated focusasanndid s evoluwas ofssible by the dissemets ifzaof humannlture abou. Mets ifzaof hu e hte need n pal era rRtion, the pahors on and knowles eued by and knt loswfic mativeateriahurs c the oagnitu th of problses and ithe pas a d in traomense nsapilycafreed1990,osaroun, mar iven rvoluf s growlt,nitating and sidst cv of humanjobwoncllof miwf sories. AnothIsaned wi of agconnecrs changbenefal chan dic mativee need fl caeducaoy. Thehndergment rate s

As sociejobtivity s pst e at thederNis prAme devalin ctm 152 pnlture aboutture hurs c the os the previlal Th centue earth19creield orlf centue earth20creny ago,,csrhe q1950hi to belin ctm more than tically incresup>h ghurs c the ohenses and cc midst conomically advanced countn, rulh o competuy represstvolutiot deloping countries. Anoththe past half century, the spreadhf the lyment ratesenrnlture aboutwide decliade ded from stg tocresup>h67% cen1950000 34%utu usi8dia vhvoluiche 1. Gr7h3<44">44/sup>45">45/sup>.

Mean the iyment ratesenrndustrial era rces rgnding hs powerdhf the lyment rates152 per% cen1950000 20%orld1990,h one ount23%utu usi8 solutie econoces rg, urcol oralf, iven rvolustg tocreciethf the ljobwosrhe q1950, it contrnts forr furth18%ctivnmhat vment rateslly. Thi,th ofapac00 31%orld1990coopensne ount43%utu usi8 [45]additesilUS,iyment ratesenrndusie econoces rg from an av53%ctivnmhat jobwocen1956000 70%orld1977coope81%utu usi9,rnts foror it. Imeny benefaclnU.S.sjobtg in Wosrhe q1972ilaes and cvolvne sites of wealt77%ctivaclnjobwoceneed U.K.stresFrainjus71%u trulclnOECDtries wher, 69%utu EU-27, 69%utu Jty nstresKhana, 33% cenCny a, tres31%orldn phiilaes and caccounts forthe c77%ctivrom cenU.S., 73% cenEU, 70%orldOECDtries wherencre68%ally. This

Figure 1. Gr7il AcaddecliEment rate e dSes rg:q195000) in8. fromh 3<46">46/sup>.

6p.jp20 alt=gn=

In adrowticconceth, dainsh of produie econoces rg yment ratese pmate control os deeendef soanlyflictd fllompensamulineion of rechallth, danot necessents a sthalin cosup>hr socio-kiith ghurs c the ohenmplo-kiitvdaumpl-wf soie econojobw> dyicconce of su inesilUS B. GauroduLabriaSg an essen tijns hithe mg the previo in th in800) i18, 65%ctivcosyjobwoes valdoceneed fn anstth ofapacs atpal communry P, by h=" th ut havinres huctivredium gher prls of societkiithndergion and low e57%ctivaclncosyjobwo=" th uthe c peketh the vieavinties,fons for ,eas the enursr decookkeepunue tion aies fn i spsne et sl ghf srate evs had terrocal sti ma.

The ets u9.3 solutCnge of sustaFulnoEment rate The pdit of the econgkable achiesion of tradesisnt ratestunity andid ciitt centues, infan212ion, pri asbecomlly. Thinmade clae b ofΦe cunvment the transIational commuLabriaOzation have (ILO)utu us10 45">45/sup>.

Redergoyment rates not oenrnu thries wherenreably did nttlleacietwie qualiofl and df 1. Gs,csrhe qgoyment ratesdromThe problem of sustagoyment ratesnderminedyment ratese pcla fstrge b the stageem of sustaty and . Uoyment rates elto the natioctive capacty ofzaof human capitrces, inf.lPy and d elto the natioeic systernlfae susternll-s. Huuman capits. Hum.lPy and de for saesult e impo,datind-lahangningrefore, humcre the of hummongalway h utiomewrrivesbid fll.he 1. Gr8sdenconvees in the ropulat and ds of unempesil’s most ation ‘pr152 pe981000 usi5 pr1ncrevent startre the s. Befaclnre the srefore, rofoevolvanitutealy. Figure 1. Gr8.lPy and dL of uneime is a.dL ft ofnel a triat and ds of unempesil’s most ation ‘p, tress and ofnel a triat and ds of unexs alhis Cny a. fromh

6p.jp21 alt=gn=

In adNey ry.oln ianconnecvalueh fillileave than proporstagebn, pri asbecomlhehis d dasethe paderssreinter$2.500tsdr,,cstrugglhe ohenl etrin coontidem somum mic growtn the cof technond tunvment thorrminedyment rma Acadegoyment rates rom an av7%cfy">cipaose ontowticconce oal capits compo on10%orlde" -us10,"6p. it maof technondtase in powas ntrated focusasar lime inequOECDtries whertradn coDpment of evBank ese goalhithe madn laoeofers homnew chasocio50lion, pri unvment thnderminedyment th
48">4.vEiot delmically advanced countn, rulh,ihugeors placemanrmbeco—se nsapilycyou acaae su to conclfiopensmunve securyment rate> Rds illiWray ese goalhithe mtoivityrom s of ustagoyment ratesnderminedyment rateseeneed U.S.saesuprtix chanlyy17.5%ctivesil peksd in ,ssents a social mne25ion, pri asbecom49">4.

Sr conclusins can hpunuistost econoOECDtries whertrEe nsapilyc> ustailovakia, 30%orldItahioagni Revn ,s2000) 5% cenFrainj>ustaipalus

The etp align="justify">The prindicyment ratese princest resilenge of sue stage nability.

tivhcapital, naturield ulnoyment ratese princdecrets. Alecure ofdl.he 1. Gr9sdenconveg in Wotivesil pekhe oageoation and dcenG20hries wherusdes alhe on phieieldCny a, ten tijns the tILOorlde" -us10onollosarkhe oageoation and de econnecn, rulh tilcie up o.on phie of thmpenst ret 100 mi35ion, pri cosysisnt ratestunity andid ciitentanedestruc, incfy">cow a sorbecosys d fn imagiesil peksd in itTsue t emergrs pla pulaunupe effe,nae of su inesilIational commuCityi of humenPeanj>ustaFhortrld1991 ese goalteoftenn phietie acfor fow ites dau-illion, pri cosysisnt ratestunity andid cg the previ1990 ccservcoloow atmentsf ulnoyment ratesrosperi a fivata of e yoow atmentsfith it thwreaddopy Φe cofl and dnance ratesicald ,ght is cdecrecipatincreatof ma s th

moderofl and dyment ratesndermiyment rates1 1. Gsorldn philomentostloping countries rose ae su bilityd ,rnt. Hi a suggpowerthe mentan phinaoy. Thehdirtrldrs c ites dau-sunttoitotnjobwonclois a sthalrnll Huumangoyment ratesd the preint. in tilarhe qualp, n phievolutic growth. Thep dau-o beaisvepsignThy anclyys the m tijns th distiin cor socioenrentanedestruc, in>

Figure 1. Gr9ma Ackhe oageoation and dcenG20hries wherusdes alhe on phieieldCny asdee Data e" -us10onfromh



7. Suts u9.4elopphic transustaFulnoEment rate The pTrld is in thn the proce stages of emergcr countraphic transrtion of mohs propoesilienf the Gaa thdpesrata been ne in fertiime nirhep dau-nalysitase in populbut -tancy, agicc midst crelmically adva-ced countries wher.he 1. Gr9s, augeaccou a trihumanesil pekhe oageoation and dwillileof ustfhorrne in fertiagrs pla tivr20hries wherusction, fd st th, dahs propoer eclyysptionso concl n thouge at thierates dl.he 1. Gr10u a trihumanexpectancy, agirld n thouge at th rom an av46s agorld1900000 67s agorld1950D forpo cooth80.3s agorldus10," the internirhep dau-ded from an av30.8hcpit1earsation ‘p, rld1900000 17.3rld1950D forpo cooth10rldus10mal ng sectirevitime, h, d spreality rates comcc midssquries whereo befge of an av4.1ertia them 1900000 2.4rld1950D forpo cooth1.6utu us10 27">27/sup>51">51/sup>.

Human criseth, didwillievolve s growtcatf humnneed e, bonrucayment rate> Uinedge at sysmost seds dau-sr">sly ,need EUmost labriad in rormoed, untohenshrbout inc100 m0.2%mpr, itcen count in 0tresus30 52">52/sup>. Most Bysus30 fore, =" th ut110ion, pri asbecomthe past f socia65 ceneed EU-25, uphan av71ion, pri tu usi0nrmbecolimecaldensamulcdeclinin"#-he i raNid withon. . Moddn r Cation an-dse goalhechallindon aies fn iaenPeanj>usion, pri t emergrsmy. Thehicinesiret 10nconvea., 73%lway h utiomewrrivso conc03aldensam, daintrated osu8>. 8Huumangoyment rrlndid ciittcreasedof sustagd,tes to

emergrsa77%ctivromsd in ,ssents andusie e ed tacty ofzaof human capitrces, inf.liprtix chanaiviney thphd Capiratinngkamerof suapit>. 9yy44lion, pri g the previo in th i10Rts andmpo,datind and c the otransitealtpEarth d be m byy40sbenereedom, oppor> 6 goalhithe may nch a wherta hightesncresign="justir">">47/s anmpo,datiwe cassents a st th, dent rau usapitaemalf ea.

gapthe oieldCnl5td same tp. i for vetech p>. < negecaan pnl, Fin. Tkses10n ant ratwit ostir">47angningrhe ets uticea>uclingaptumpl-wf soie l nillion, pri same t, daintrated os6sti6 nd stimunse toto decrehallenge of st rat Bysus30 wherlindon aies fn www.nealign="justir"adsupa647,hty sion, pri tannsoudat

Figur emergrszeroent raUSs andorecalptions uticeviney thphd 17 ites dau-sunhuman capthat-si align.ted focdditt cenuierapla pulaunuCapiratsi5 pr1ion, pri cosysis uticevurplu/phd 47 ites dau-sunttointsfitrld19lUS B. c brerplu/pcreaenU.S the d of , daintrated os6sic63ly advanced cod from t ratinductive capacieaccou a5 pr1ioned thne previ199f hsrsisnt ratustify">Nid witspl-wf soie l n most e at thepri g the previo in th i1000), infan2(Ψ,and, aerminedymentmeny beno1950D forpo cooth10rldustive capacreatiu usi0nrmnall.y rearth19cpcreafae bty ofocial n ctm lys welvoi ndapaigher lilerted from byyIn addslobal sconts to imagihpal communry P, by h=" ttside and in. rechallth, danot wheru20onOs eind onlyionst Gr9sdviney thphd Capirati-Ption and dh in Woe99600) in7. from h ghurs c the on triat l Acadoeadership. These crises areycyou 5d cs tto nesmunve securyment rate> Rds illiWray esE capacity a i


re c77veactunvoreind eactunvhie rpubr7hh h h h .

h,es. suppleitutil-sesult inhho195600000 gneal , oleF byoE.T…h ghurs c the on beingal. Preseconomically advancweco19560bihpal andzeund iatprled, i It t= ttohurs Eacodependent w...ial lign="center">h ghurs c twedlembral n ctmamerof s"justify">In addthe c.jp13 alt=II,i-Ption aid- a tria twedljobwp.jp1ign="nmy. Thefor ieaviyates romf10n rdvelEmenlhe on.

Inobwoncllity ad D f to conclleasts, pri asbecomlly. Thicrconsnomsts, pril’s most ationrtehercadee qhteras>h <-prleeve capacreatigua prieearly samhetir"munry P, dat pe9rom stg h in Woe99600industi8, 6Amitstunraes aJefesarly sam wedl eobwry.oilsighurs hanlyyuctiog eveenmeaua prieearly sam="#-apacitg ir"adds, byaby h=" ent rates sam=orstage.inhe emone soeop-hum (ILO)utu us114mmuLabriaret 100 mi3"centelthpiddledequazed dased has gsarln pal quaputwh. In addslobalst-d . Uoymennd ofnel a eave thanil’s most atio,sesimec,stuted by-apacitg i,psNamg ets Rcntaltf humnneedGua prieeaScheilitde tecustir">ua prieeaFigud70%ohurs c the os q1950, ioorlem faoennutealy50ment> r overcormider5 ites dau-sunttoitnnsouda aitsnowcthe slow etrin coorly sam="sdent wBysusi n ctm46s agify">In addslelopmentrences, threenated by the addslob micd unr"#3">3

. The is tmpr,w,,csrdledtuuthe">47hdeve> dis. These rivr20siserThe ets au ty, 3%ohursenceous r lias"jfte nLargeowm cenU.S., 73,reastetc.urymeial lign="center"><65">6ries wherusde“000)(danhmto conclng> h ghurs c the obstesetchannte9800tt

47hdeve> dciay suppleintaoton as aecyment ed thterialaoetnvorenuclnjobwf="#i asbecomlly.loomsnd impli. < i spsne et rgynro="judslowupoageoa spsne nothIsakableia rRtiojobwp.jp1ign=kable theprPsive rommonsl ‘pyhinaoy growtiearked thhn="juobwo markn. Figuish c,rfaoen onioakdsloiiove oen esd utsiiopet o,ntal functdtOomoncept d dtntrminedy,ntiolew dl ethn d hostinedy,ntOomovfrom aro2lsmng> In adrowth ofapacsis onEilycafree the mentaativecce knowlapt cct of humant is a missemDve keervatione slent ratese pcla thMosup>hr s40ent ratagoses1belareutartre4 a tr"> GtiveBent isaor h= ttentpporto energpilycafreed199trynotal2av3<3/sup>.<6">6Huumangoyment races,lex slentomicallee Daon is thcpi> pho ,s TVe 1. Gr5sdencsrlr enologt ofnel iaCny erialign=oneearign=sur.ofit. pe99edlrh oidly exeavi scie nmy.need chanThep Gwthleon cootth, s anitdee thcpi>hFiguaroun, faoen ome44">44/.jp15 an inmnie vaiv iF byoE mnnga tierate pekhe oagoanaddslelopmenteopmei foy s. T nnology. Ifaoen oignTotal2"ign="center"><66">66nd stimunse toto decrehallenge of sEilycafreei icounte mef moe s a dynopmentcieaccohe inmhat l econjp22 alt1idst cremic s ieaviyae bynuteand onlr$2.500ts. Tvxrrotnjobtraove oen= a shgductsuintuitamanagie=http://www T o<67">6Moddn r Cat 7%cfy">cipaose ontowticconce oal capits 11. Yt ratclusve oetal2trateieaviyaGDPl cdapple who ,"ign="center"><68">6es. Thea tentartinf t,n are fes every retrace-exathe n challasionp addresecologment rate

52">52/sup>. Mcapits 1midst cra. Eacoymentcorndusieoageanedestpilycafreed199w T o 45">45he eray40% 15ento lmlly. tentaativ,is4 adtived199t pektiveon. 45">45he eray40% 15ento lmlly. tentaativ,is4 adtived199t pektiveon. cipaose ontowticconce oal capits 12cyEilycafreevs. w T o69mskiithialidatind che simi Allnttlleacieillion aroe fes every retrace-exathe n challasionp addresecologment rate

52">52/sup>. Mo, glouce ecocorndusieoageanedestpilycafreed199vaclncoay">In a-29"meron.

t andutiv ito enof dr o.
3F"6p.jp213 incf14 natioce ecocorndusieoageanedest symbown el aspira pektivepnto lmlly. nter"ymbown el aspirw T oTfsur.arth19cpowlanomicp>. < ds of he eCfy">In adsing valplnergy poursatbstesethon.

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momudsd-lesthe cihie l72,e0its.3 h10inhi>nb n levilte tntwitsp50, codipl sir,9uch in "miraThpothIde60entivevaivcafreesocortbea ai gltsa 7y.l72,e0iarm98%tht9m 18,io">=-P anda972il> . SuGr9sdinbtoh tive5t 83%n="center"><11 r>1f3ly1advanced MosuNooaltevolwwnolacihieoceterotswrthcafrectd ssucnrolldmicliis adegstlryn;ewrthe tosilycafre,9a1oftatchas e ssti>sdenco1960ritaoth197es.3l c8,icihieoceteoTarth19,eea cihie abmvaun=aoy. Thehorabltiveaderssreiwlauend199s a972ilts ar"In 21. 3Caltal f ovscegy. Ittcihieoceteop> motOomwrthcafrectdmewioe fnolaht9m 30 ed bcrthemon0 uE sudi1empeeater972il>npa9vcosti3">ec sts aeidamentd .jpvaivepedsrtivaivcafreesoc, l,as">3="jegu>. . pvn Woe99yTarthtetsidcpctanolaf gny 0itnentcGedles a19, thenbtoh77y.l72Iron tetuytoh71y.l72Iron Smdst9 y 33y.l72ned19s rinc, bowi >sivromie=0) in7sn Tarthtenia, ae sgy dtncosyme> gnyimicihie na, thenbtoh14%tp gny( h pvnal/8oncy elegy dtncutpefovhowlaom16%c Snst Gciis awatenent oee p gnywat48%ton. etrasingned19aa. di nt> gnyhald4Rdusof human capital. SimilTogecountin17en23vie9from byIttcihieocPp> mold19ryoAaThi p(A)h197e; (B)3 h10;hi 7. Sutlievolve s gro106r>1fy">1he pTrld .jp1nd che simid chan capital. SimilTogecounAnd che simid ch all tforcrimentaevolvee the qualiilities of humanrmbecomoncentr41ve sil peks35in4its rame time, thel peksow emid knowlaoe67 <45href="#-29">52">5,and apai hasctivromBnd che simid ch all tforcrimentaevolvee the qualiilities of humanrmbecomoncentr41ve si2l peks35in4it2s rame time, thel peksow emid knowlaoe67 <82href="#-29">52">5,and apai hasctivromCnd che simid ch all tforcrimentaevolvee the qualiilities of humanrmbecomoncentr41ve rted eso3iai4n that mption is tced top of retraceexat90lp82href="#-29">52">5,andis onNa cnioen oeepesinmsth gn19hnn etoa missement ratese pcla maF c b">yledegsio a nid dow-rvcon t ltesh ltenh= tnmllyrsap f s- hse n, dDastylrriamessaebow19 ratgy Elginr, anrrq19 ratcafre 190irynuafretaoteossootenh=It ata ssorhe m prhcat1 Inedn .pos raoaococihie an. lsdom.S irgieonce tra ieoashipsand low els ive pcla hresU.K.epr1/Dve keervatione slent nrmn, threenn el ,ttec scll mraThe eteistrtonveads o rvni/wwwnru usore6alysi‘plemtovscegy.she doria"nt cnrmn, teecy ad ,ttec of human capital. SimilTogecountin17en2rpuol/8oncF elegytCovnIsyme> gnySuervhr ne aboutwtcon198Bs.3l c8 e>7. Sutlievolve s gro106r74">74t rate 5n="jdi r0" height="301 " a4maF5ommb,j9sdai g3 Ath1Pp> mold19 adrowth ofapacsis on00)jPp> mold19i19emtoidatavr adieoihime .pssdom.Ss dcieilyh<,d ti suieoashipsand low els ive pcla hresUkeervatione sl/wue, utesets at cspppyvhi>n p> mold19rpubeowhts etoa nowlacoalmpet,h<,doneyemp> r neo ofrieoceavpe,rtutaocio y dtncurchagF52 non-urshwan#-29"> chraTha missement ratese pc62% ce anst Gtru1empeeair"n . vatione slrdeCnrldi e s pporgmiwctlent0essorhe n, dwh. l9 ari, ia mNiena, p-rriame,opn, dw prhnn etnronmlly mergs,wc=hsdis aa. rates152 per% cen195TdciRuesoriyruLhestgy Wolfgd I Lutz9tir"cuctsuintp>h mold19i, s moderovu egyeaio aliatesnderminedymenty adivsteseettlint ueenind anseyemtovsceapiratd cvolvne? 00nht9m 50 ="tiov="joa h u47cafrectd ssumrioswbesuytdrshdsphe m. Tvhr Ccenin tra dcecafre 190c= pnlve. ontgmiwigu>. mo"> mold19i19vscegy.shhe"hnuof s>vxapub,neg>FunnirchasdeCncafre 190ti3">unmt iimosabociahn=eaunundsi suctp nd alie anmytaie=htiwur= gloiti sup>henh8ommr>nd cvolvne? 00nhrprledrrti=mbyoend1ersesnctbe74t rate 52">5,ands areSolictoch oC byi19vscegy.shicil>nd cvolvne? 00nfrom ie s dciai>nIIASAncrth a 8Bs.3uLawchoblem eid972il> . S/p> moderofeorypeakld pe ,incrdds19, thervni/www etnrodhnn 972i21 adurytago

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SimilTogecountin17en26. Cer sevcofvhre-EhufoT tve—Icom7. Sutlieevd che si volve s gro1f8r>21 go20e pTrld .jp1 mid ch all tforcrimentaevolvee the qualiilities of humanrmbecomoncentr41ve50ted eso37ai50ted e mption is tced top of retraceexat74lp01href="#-29">5n="jdi r0" height="301 " a4maF7 tdiiclu ttis adrowth ofapacsis on00)jobercpepherivaplr0eiDCnabte9hs sociaciD drawteatnindent dcieilyeyledegsroaoaococafreesocii andent a missement. cafree the nflabicntsuE sudi1emcatbd i a ray adivstes>l9 ari,e in p acharrti=mbyoend19icalchie kv ih ent,dig,flgdua, pri n7.yea adu/p> mo"> < e sodst980tmenty ad ,tentsemtroveagomigntana by thee="juxha tretete9800ti rectd maenty.K.idit,iwm ,tentsuafretaoteosseseossorhe n, dwh. tr62% lvechaif,itt vilycafretaote199avhr Ccenin treosseseossorhe n, dwh. .aAseCarlhJuean hufoT idis ,ToftInatitape ‘hnn etnet 1menhe yajpunvmentpe ‘hnn etnrai3n> 2fy">2he pTrld .jp1 ouclustir"> vola missement ratese pcla maF c"nt c3trachavin,tntmnall62%tehse9 "cw li19emto ctt Rwhr>ksh itivya,jRtnj thjRtvie,cweSopaswoysi Mukkai achobjeM=n cooShref="on,n Sancuo as ncve. r0" height="301 " a4maRaeboeatne adrowtcod ch allid="ftn*"9">5n= thrme="*" rt le=""i v pT* GarhJacobsn Vn,n phn=t Oba,eM=n cooShref="on,n Sancuo & Mervcond-lBoim hnn Tnucoeest 3 Ath1Amlenhnn Art & S"jJarth "jdi t Ivo Slausn phn=t Obasd-lesthe CarthCre SranaDi nd199& Mervcond-lBoim , 3 Ath1Amlenhnn Art & S"jJarth r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro1*" hrme="_ftn*" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn1"9">5n= thrme="1" rt le=""i v pT 1. 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Mi er, C pcAsdago:aA TnindessaodaEstir">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro15" hrme="_ftn5" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn6"9">5n= thrme="6" rt le=""i v pT 6orlkNr, C pcla urIn; Coiumbia Unnr"ppent0phn=s:us waYork, NY, USA, 1964p1 mid ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" hrme="_ftn6" rt le=""i v pT ch al ch allid="ftn7"9">5n= thrme="7" rt le=""i v pT7p1 Laroche,eM.; MérT ee,eM.>"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro17" hrme="_ftn7" rt le=""i v pT ch al ch allid="ftn8"9">5n= thrme="8" rt le=""i v pT 8.aAks dcynas .R.; Adsp1, F.AsgOcttDrfisanNectdssatGgu>. "#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro18" hrme="_ftn8" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn9"9">5n= thrme="9" rt le=""i v pT9p1 H rbisucymF.H.,n C pcR2% ce n lajpWgu>. "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro19" hrme="_ftn9" rt le=""i v pT ch al ch allid="ftn11 g">5n= thrme="10" rt le=""i v pT10in frtnha, Rsgrowwn anAh<,n; Sim199& Schucoer:us waYork, NY, USA, l c0g rates1"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro110" hrme="_ftn10" rt le=""i v pT ch al ch allid="ftn11"9">5n= thrme="11" rt le=""i v pT11in Far, J. Stttcofla urIn:aA Catghpt15 aHe ‘. Pywerfthi>‘hl c4, 32, 6-33g the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro111" hrme="_ftn11" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn12"9">5n= thrme="12" rt le=""i v pT12vo Rcp ml, RsJ.i20,rcCrytago Demtttd . Armined. qualiilitihpn,,aa1/v pTm"jdi t20TH.HTM (pt=tstiov="j11 May3 h10)h r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro112" hrme="_ftn12" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn13"9">5n= thrme="13" rt le=""i v pT 13.rvchultz, T.W.lIt., 73 ldigntn C pcla urIn. Am.vEWoevie97. 1961as1as1-17h r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro113" hrme="_ftn13" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn14"9">5n= thrme="14" rt le=""i v pT FrpuCrutzrn,jPsJ.iGer,dm hnn Mytkirs:hobjeAnthnesicen . nhm "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro114" hrme="_ftn14" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn15"9">5n= thrme="15" rt le=""i v pT F5c SnUoymn,jW.; Crutzrn,jPsJ.; McNeyowasJ.R.hobjeAnthnesicen :aArpen C ps Now"justwhelmisanmtlyGrait Foe n lr5tnhm "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro115" hrme="_ftn15" rt le=""i v pTcch al ch allid="ftn16"9">5n= thrme="16" rt le=""i v pT16.Huxley, J. s waBottlilacovns waWin"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro116" hrme="_ftn16" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn17"9">5n= thrme="17" rt le=""i v pTF7 tMaddisucymA.hobjea Ath1EWoe99y:aA M Gten RalnPt of ssden;jOECD: Parir,jF3"cwe, l c1h r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro117" hrme="_ftn17" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn18"9">5n= thrme="18" rt le=""i v pT18.a1Cin traac, H.; Jacobsn G.; Macfarlaen,jR.; v pcH r rn,jR.; C pcl6onwe:hobjeGen C bfCo190eoftStttcofD missement; 3 Ath1Amlenhnn Art & S"jJart: M nneayignsn MN, USA, 1999vi r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro118" hrme="_ftn18" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn19"9">5n= thrme="19" rt le=""i v pT19p1 PeotsiymA.hCatgfoT tticofRh im , Sehed mS 8690as1984h r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro119" hrme="_ftn19" rt le=""i v pTmid cch al ch allid="ftn21 g">5n= thrme="20" rt le=""i v pTRdus Sriene1obal o.hobjeL, prDi ,n; Alls ncvesphn=s:uP.jpistonr as ncve,h197e; pp. 898-899vi r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro120" hrme="_ftn20" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn21"9">5n= thrme="21" rt le=""i v pT21in Elgin, D.; LeDrew,jC >Gecy adCrhe n, dwh. "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro121" hrme="_ftn21" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn22"9">5n= thrme="22" rt le=""i v pT 22 e>7n asHor0indvGgu>. ;raconsphn=s:uBo n,eMA, USA, 1996grates1"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro122" hrme="_ftn22" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn23"9">5n= thrme="23" rt le=""i v pT 23viOtt, K.; Dodevat, RsgSche s%SderminedyminfiatavEonmllyrshco.SPywent: J areSnindenttdid Ir litenindent)jInavatioentHepeL, pr="jE npr:vEonmllyrshco.Sdid n C pcHgu>. "#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro123" hrme="_ftn23" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn24"9">5n= thrme="24" rt le=""i v pT2rpuaNsasn,eB.G.; Toste,eM.A)%Sderminedyminf:1EWoss,acs asgduEstir">gduEsti. 1997, 73, 553-568.the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro124" hrme="_ftn24" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn25"9">5n= thrme="25" rt le=""i v pT 25leBraac, FpuCrf ideroNret svila urInie9700ated:1EWoss,acs aResymieatnioplevatioentHepeD missement. cWos.vEWoevim 19, 68, 605-611.the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro125" hrme="_ftn25" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn26"9">5n= thrme="26" rt le=""i v pT 26. Dietz, S.; Ne C yNr,jE.pWgukld pe ,he s%vatione slent unvmentSEEA: Catghptsl ech Feswowment. cWos.vEWoevim 17, 61, 617-626.the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro126" hrme="_ftn26" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn27"9">5n= thrme="27" rt le=""i v pT 27. 3 Ath1Pp> mold19mb, a rao:hobjel c8ie9700aon; Unneyi NashipseD opoiwhe p-lEstir"> mold19Di nd19:us waYork, NY, USA, l c9. Armined. 7. .aspx?d=Pp>Di &f= smNid. ID:77" rt le=" qualii hur.unmonce>7. .aspx?d=Pp>Di &f= smNid. ID:77"> qualii hur.unmonce>7. .aspx?d=Pp>Di &f= smNid. ID:77v pT (pt=tstiov="j1 May3 h10)h the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro127" hrme="_ftn27" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn28"9">5n= thrme="28" rt le=""i v pT 28.aŠlausn I. Fao aliD anmytaie=hTdafreetti.aCre. Pap. s waWrasgl c8,i9, 8-17h the pr"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro128" hrme="_ftn28" rt le=""i v pT h al ch allid="ftn29"9">5n= thrme="29" rt le=""i v pT 29. Ka urza, S.P >Gecy adPp> mold19Bdow-Ud sgdurinc,;tnhuka:yaorcow,jRuT ta, l c4g rates1"#-29">"#-29">he >52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro129" hrme="_ftn29" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn31 g">5n= thrme="30" rt le=""i v pT 30. Brundtli "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro130" hrme="_ftn30" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn31"9">5n= thrme="31" rt le=""i v pT 31. DrulkNr,jP.hobjePvishla urInriveSancuo ; H ro"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro131" hrme="_ftn31" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn32"9">5n= thrme="32" rt le=""i v pT 32. w aevai, O.; Stahml, W.hobjeL,min=sudsCirchasde; Kluo52 Amlenof Prom ie rs:uBo n,eMA, "jdi tUSA, 1993h r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro132" hrme="_ftn32" rt le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn33"9">5n= thrme="33" rt le=""i v pT 33. 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FICCIveys,al ln"ensanPopaS1/v ioh entgrvment hase,h19 t dSolry; FICCIwaYorkDelhicve,h197eJuly8; patined. liiliticme> _oh entgr_eys,al_ ttcl_1_"#-% nxi &amiov="j1 Maacervcon r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro112" 8rme="_ftn41" 8t le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn42"98>5n= thrme="42" 8t le=""i v pT 42. 82ddisnws,aa.pSuppSdimyt m 10vi raTal Oxcoh entgrveys,al Resuln9ExucltS"jg the: s gro1f8,cwhol9 r_gadPp>_sh entgr_sys,al_resuln9_A4_lo"#-% le=",cwhol9 r_gadPp>_sh entgr_sys,al_resuln9_A4_lo"#-% >,cwhol9 nxi &amiov="j1 Maacervcon r0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro112" 8rme="_f4n32" 8t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn33"98>5n= th4me="33" 8t le=""4 v pT 33. 83C pcla urIn; Co: How WotalYou n,tncohaprvmYOffir="jca: Parir,jF3"cwe, l c1h r. 383g 2tined. liiliticme>.gsuy n.o.unm.gsu/35/51/37967294"#-% nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0rates1"#-29">"#-29">he >5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro136" 8rme="_f4n33" 8t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn34"98>5n= th4me="4" r8 le=""i v pT 4g M8terhJaeK.; Rtate: se:.H h10ee the idaMarkewuUpdoe h 0r—eurch3 AtNerk, NY .aspx,tir"tdssd972il c8SUNY Leemn RsiNeous.kvey,ttt, Syracuse, USA, l c0Febrsm 1e; Intined. liiliticme>sradDsh,cwof t/al xtsdrApickewt/ 10ard-ghJaeK.s-eduvgoasees-... nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0rates1"#-29">"#-29">he >5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro136" 8rme="_f4n4" r8 le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn35"98>5n= thrme="5" r8t le=""4 v pT 35."jELvatiLeemn Rsin C pcHgu>rIn; Co, ate1999Briefca: Parir,jF3"cwe, l c1July8; pa0" h"atined. 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RogRPp> .>CankaSgherfrdia:r. oft sssttDrentttd .racyg trel c8; p.tined. -pt:t ss le=" qualiiliticme>.rendtd .racyof t/albediltcanka-Ers-caina-h -pt:t ss >liiliticme>.rendtd .racyof t/albediltcanka-Ers-caina-h "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro134" 9rme="_f4n4" r9 le=""i v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn35"99>5n= thrme="5" r9t le=""4 v pT 35. 95minrmedmiTeaPywtscovd Un;vscegy.s Pl Jansh,cws: OnsFuiA, Uanada10inArmined. pl Jansh,cws>ue/librabcaD/ACRText/ACR-frdiaAPl" rt le=" qualiiliticme>pl Jansh,cws>ue/librabcaD/ACRText/ACR-frdiaAPl" rt >liiliticme>pl Jansh,cws>ue/librabcaD/ACRText/ACR-frdiaAPl" rt nxi &amiov="j1 May3 h10)h 0rat ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h9rme="_ftn5" r9t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn36"99>5n= thrme="6" r9t le=""i v pT 6o96.Ja Bo . eknnsAv="ssstunvR; S"jJBrief Ogshn Carinsia freclnds: M 80ateew etnWgu> Carinsia Terrorism> br Am.vSAIR8,i10,i8,nea. 3 r0" h09on the: s gro1f8 qualiiliticme>,tsatpin,tptsair/Arcan3 ltsair8/8_3 " ral ce%i v pTmid cme>,tsatpin,tptsair/Arcan3 ltsair8/8_3 " ra> pTmid cme>,tsatpin,tptsair/Arcan3 ltsair8/8_3 " r nxi &amiov="j1 May3 h10)h 0ratch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h9rme="_ftn6" r9t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn37"99>5n= thrme="7" r9t le=""4 v pT 37. 97. Jaffrld1t; H nensanPopaSvnje jel c8. v spo1960n EtaWrasg1AmlOrdnhukCbia bia "ppent0phn=s:uL.jpW sseSuv="xasm 19; p. 38h 8atich"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h9rme="_ftn7" r9t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn38"99>5n= thrme="8" r9t le=""i v pT 8.aA98.hbsn G.; Macfusn I. Fao cainmstosson Er">nsn:aA= rCadmus Jc8,i10,i1, 53-110" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro132" 9rme="_ftn8" r9t le=""4 v pTmid ch al ch allid="ftn39"99>5n= th4me="39" 9t le=""4 v pT 39. r0"RymA.hnreirault Lnkr";vsci M rook"ppent0phn=s:uL.jpsci M roo,neJA, l c0g r0" h"#80" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro132" 9ai9" Nnte9he:9 ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10975Pp> msgrookt1097le=""i v pT F5c S00 rCamduL.uscaM rfrer o> nsenibue idaws9voentHepeMeta. nsenibue idaws9voentHepeMeta. thr gn. nptsec/mds/h r5/ >liiliticme> thr gn. nptsec/mds/h r5/m"jdi t20THmds950 " r=tstiov="j20 M7 July8; 0rates1"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro136" 1097l="_ftn19" r00ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10175Pp> msgrookt1017le=""i v pT F5c S010"Rym10arA.hnreiIneent0e DcIsk"p20n"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro137" 1017l="_ftn19" r01ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10275Pp> msgrookt1027le=""i v pT F5c S02r sorn197eGoat0"Coulb,iJeiIneent0e D,uowth vePng> byoReo entSEEAEraEstiribizhe id; UNU/WIDER:r. lsinM.F. tt, m 10vi 0" h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro117" h027l="_ftn19" r02ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10375Pp> msgrookt1037le=""i v pT F5c S03C pcla u mold19m Oxcovd Unn–6lmytve Mac. Gtan:uHampshi "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro118" h037l="_ftn19" r03ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10475Pp> msgrookt1047le=""i v pT F5c S04.8h1Amlsti1 g">ovd Unn–05:frer o>Ineent0e irvment hasAg 8bje ttcofSamv adPp>izhe id; frectdssatCommInwmn:aAuT198B r OffiStudie jeva, Swurzerraac, m 10vi r0" h"xites1"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro136" 1047l="_ftn19" r04ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10575Pp> msgrookt1057le=""i v pT F5c S05ting:oinmA.hoRcGcNePtckewt; StchoSpirat LmoldjpWhyxMnundEent0cuo eoirvmAlmla uAlways Do BlstnhukA JanduEsejpucymUKasm 19; p." h"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro117" h057l="_ftn19" r05ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10675Pp> msgrookt1067le=""i v pT F5c S0atiUSCovnIscafre,9uchAdlisetsbisent)jIn, EIAtcfrectdssatCommTooskoltimm 1eovnIsca n, umpii anErssrvnIsyme> gny ncmined. "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1067l="_ftn19" r06ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10775Pp> msgrookt1077le=""i v pT F5c S07C pcla u mold19m Oxcovd Unn r0"ytve Mac. Gtan:uHampshi "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro117" h077l="_ftn19" r07ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10875Pp> msgrookt1087le=""i v pT F5c S08o caina V9:us a)hn(CaTncaRed Unnplentaackgroung> Cnab";vslrnn Rs an,ttindnn,tesh"aBM So8bjee,h197eenof PromFoung ssum:rYorkDelhicve,h197eOda2 7h r05t ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1087l="_ftn19" r08ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss10975Pp> msgrookt1097le=""i v pT F5c S0r0"WnjerCaTncacaina Ssory.uowd. Researca Dh1rcaNR2% r0" h09on the: s gro1f8 qualiiliticme>gwd. me OPodsPdf/Wnjer-Tnc_caina_Ssory.#-% le=" qualiiliticme>gwd. me OPodsPdf/Wnjer-Tnc_caina_Ssory.#-% >liiliticme>gwd. me OPodsPdf/Wnjer-Tnc_caina_Ssory.#-% nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0ratch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1097l="_ftn19" r0 ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11975Pp> msgrookt1197le=""i v pT F5c SArmiCgoaAt oGroung>Wnjer Bo 3 AMibisenycafrWnjer ce n9mb,s,tesh"aBM So8bjee,h19.pSumiov= Ssory etnArindenSamvRe10arnPopaScht. vmentSvnjeTnucoamin Nadu r0" h09on the: s gro1f8 qualiiliticgwb/ #-% le=" qualiiliticgwb/ #-% >liiliticgwb/ #-% nxi &amiov="j1 Ma53 h10)h r0" ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1197l="_ftn19" r10ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11175Pp> msgrookt1117le=""i v pT F5c S(3 Ah1Pp> mold19Cloclt: J a, frectdssatCommInwmn:aAuT198BAppliashoystemscAsi‘pl.J mold19Cloclt:gy.sh198Bby LmoldcafrEesocleAh<,ned. >liiliticme> nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 rvcon h10)h i rch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1117l="_ftn19" r11ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11275Pp> msgrookt1127le=""i v pT F5c S12. LuS.; WcrEeisoryCo: Tow 3s a8h1Amlsti2–6 Be cht98. v rEesoclsd97ng>j9srefnundp "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro137" 1127l="_ftn19" r12ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11375Pp> msgrookt1137le=""i v pT F5c S13t Sutlit98ToReim 1eovrollm Oxcol echis taked iahysUNESCO .unmbnseExucltS"jg the: s gro1f8 qualiilitinco196upl.unescceapplunescc/Taon Viewer/taon Viewgn.Ia?Red UnId=16t le=""4 vliilitinco196upl.unescceapplunescc/Taon Viewer/taon Viewgn.Ia?Red UnId=16t >liilitinco196upl.unescceapplunescc/Taon Viewer/taon Viewgn.Ia?Red UnId=16t nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0ratch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1137l="_ftn19" r13ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11475Pp> msgrookt1147le=""i v pT F5c S14iveurCovnIscafre,9uchAdlisetsbisent)jIncafrectdssatgytCovnAnn1ovnjbf sos.>ucltS"jg the: s gro1f8 qualiilitit; S"jpwBa26; S"jawBa2; S"jcwBa; S"jsywBa-98e; S"jeywBa, 39; S"jC g:=QBTU le=""4 vliilitit; S"jpwBa26; S"jawBa2; S"jcwBa; S"jsywBa-98e; S"jeywBa, 39; S"jC g:=QBTU >liilitit; S"jpwBa26; S"ja... nxi &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0ratch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1147l="_ftn19" r14ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11575Pp> msgrookt1157le=""i v pT F5c S15ting:mA.hoC. FoRei0e DcBld1w RntaavauTiwuLmold.Jart: M 8,i92, 692, 007-00 ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1157l="_ftn19" r15ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11675Pp> msgrookt1167le=""i v pT F5c S16. LuS.; Wc; Sws9 ssD hobj0"Schsriovhn oTi san,PopaAmiolercii anetn adPp> mold19EsrmAge Rs. "#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1167l="_ftn19" r16ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11775Pp> msgrookt1177le=""i v pT F5c S17. LuS.; Wc; O’Nee cG.; Cj0"Schsriovhn oSranaDef="o mold19Esrmwwwu Tumn RsiPoi-lCsart: M 8,i93, 09999vi 1-vi 2 ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1177l="_ftn19" r17ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11875Pp> msgrookt1187le=""i v pT F5c S18ddissd1whobjHddiotivhe idaws9vf ssD t0e D,u3r.; PalmKis9 ssley ADj.; LalmHaracknColli98Bid PyshaBo York, NY, USA, l c0-987 r0" h35, r0es1"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro136" 1187l="_ftn19" r18ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss11975Pp> msgrookt1197le=""i v pT F5c S1 vf mioihobjeAgendai Sncurcennd etnWgu>Cgoase ;iM=n mrtrRron; El:n; El, ftic0-984" ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1197l="_ftn19" r1 ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss12975Pp> msgrookt1297le=""i v pT F5c S20 Ah1Pp> Valcescah1Pp> Valcesveys,al .unmbnseExucltS"jg the: s gro1f8 qualiiliticme> ce%i v pTmid cme>> pTmid cme>"jdi t20THwvs/WVSAsiize.jsp &amiov="j1 Maa2 h10)h 0ratch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1297l="_ftn19" r20ob%2Rn the: alk45sreiwlauT7bent wBaidss12175Pp> msgrookt1217le=""i v pT F5c S23 AJuRsgSC. FOffiArcaetypr";vRouttutItwaYork, NY, USA, l c0g r30" h"#7 ch"#-29">"#-29">52">5,ands areSoli s gro1f8r_ftnro16" h1217l="_ftn19" r21ob%2Rn the: alk45sreid ch">52"id cent class="clear-block"> cent class="menm > >5">52"id >ent class="ing u grul class="ing u ie: s grli class="comuTiw_ Snbidded iirss >li class="po19t_ (pt=laa. gro1f8r_ft/?q=po19t/58t le=""i vDistaa MW po19tab-nrt: dly ent0p anetnthis ptgrm" class="po19t-ptgr" rel="nofollow">Po19tab-nrt: dly ent0p aalk45sli2">/ul">9">"#- >5">52"i29">52">ent wBaiblock-block-9" class="clear-block block block-block"> "id cent class="c me Ox grent sty"i vbordnh: 5px doujg t#6495ED; text-ands : eSoli s;i S9t-famine: Vs dMna; backgroung-coloh: #f0f8ff0" sucyng: 8px;i S9t-size: 15px;i: s-c ight:aa2px;75Pph2 sty"i vtext-ands : agoaer;75Fu? A 8ee the idaCTeatnioln A1 Me-da McTeatniolntbn Fu? A 8ee the idainacaina was organizsd972iAsindha fro, oainmhaBrl ln"5rysm 1e;81e; p8uclvcn, idnhnWgu>/stsgrvmneedsd9inaOffischoolrp etiro examine sumiov=ful ssyy. rcaDitotalaA 8already be RshPppliashbyischoolrpinacaina etish"aseas. ch"#-2> mssty"i vtext-ands : agoaer;71f8,tnu? 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